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ISSN: 1517-4522 ISSN electrónico: 1807-0337
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Sociología
Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul
Brasil

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Antonio Cattani
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Maira Baumgarten
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LÉO PEIXOTO RODRIGUES
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FABRÍCIO NEVES
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JOSÉ CARLOS DOS ANJOS
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en: This article starts with a brief critical account of the major epistemological issues that emerged during the twentieth century and that affected both the natural sciences and the social sciences. It briefly resumes the main matters of contention from the analytical view, and presents its consequences, particularly those related to the weakening of the dichotomy between social sciences and natural sciences. Following the crisis of analytical epistemology, in the late 1960s, and the emergen-ce of complex approaches to the detriment of deterministic ones, social sciences have begun to expand their questioning the foundations of traditional science in a transdisciplinary way. The article also seeks to indicate ways to overcome the limi-tations of classical epistemology, by providing an account of the new postcolonial debates and their consequences, particularly the dualisms universal/local, social/natural, physical/symbolic.>>>
LÉO PEIXOTO RODRIGUES
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FABRICIO
Universidade de Brasília
Brasil
JOSÉ CARLOS DOS ANJOS
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en: This article is an attempt to address – drawing on the authors’ own experiences in research and teaching, and in dialogue with international literature – the episte-mological and methodological assumptions underlying the sociological research, and the challenges to which they give rise in order to consider them in different contexts. The case made here emphasizes a low level of epistemological and me-thodological reflection in sociological research and a series of recurring characte-ristics such as multi-method strategies, predominance of qualitative analysis and the heritages of positivism/neo-positivism and of the epistemological vector. Also, some openings in the dominant epistemological and methodological models are presented, particularly regarding the hypothetical-deductive system and the one which proposes to break with common sense. Final remarks point to the need for not only recognizing the multiparadigmatic character of sociology, but also highlighting the multiple analytical procedures available to sociology for building its research practices.>>>
Pedro
Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas
Argentina
en: In thirty years, the “pragmatic sociology” (also called “sociology of proofs”) produ-ced empirical investigations relating to every area of social life. According to the theoretical postulates they advocated, the researchers identified with this socio-logical school have developed quite new ways to conduct research, collect data, explore the fields, reflect on each case and drawn on controversies and affairs for making their way into the social order and the complex issue of its reproduc-tion. The objective of this article is to present a ten points characterization of the pragmatic style in sociology and its methodological requirements and practical consequences in the research work.>>>
CATHERINE RÉMY
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DOMINIQUE LINHARDT
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DAMIEN DE BLIC
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JEAN-PHILIPPE HEURTIN
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CÉDRIC MOREAU DE BELLAING
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en: This article explores some of the metatheoretical foundations of the social scien-ces. Over and against structural, structuralist and situationist approaches that stress the downwards causation of structures on agency, it brings the causal power of culture to the fore and forges a comprehensive articulation between culture and action. Drawing on critical realism, hermeneutics and anti-utilitarianism, the arti-cle systematically argues for a “view from within” that can disclose how symbols, norms and expressions regulate social actions that can transform social structures. In this sense, the exploration of the internal connection between culture and so-cial agency links social action not so much to social order as to social change.>>>
FRÉDÉRIC VANDENBERGHE
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en: This article presents a theoretical reflection on the post-foundationalism, a philo-sophical school that furthered the rising of French post-structuralism in the second half of the 20th century. It aims, particularly, to discuss the ontological, theoretical and epistemological implications of the post-foundational approach for researches in Social Sciences. To this end, first, the authors’ understanding of what they call post-foundationalist Zeitgeist is discussed, especially the emphasis on the ontolo-gical difference and on foundation as Abgrund, according to Martin Heidegger‘s work. Second, the Heideggerian influence on Jacques Derrida‘s post-structuralist philosophical thought is presented. After that, the incorporation and use of Hei-deggerian ontology in the work of Ernesto Laclau is discussed, focusing on the notions of hegemony and populism. The article ends with considerations on the importance of post-foundationalism for social sciences researches.>>>
DANIEL DE MENDONÇA
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BIANCA DE FREITAS LINHARES
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SEBASTIÁN BARROS
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en: This paper aims to analyze current perspectives for a functionalist theory of socie-ty. Drawing on both the functionalist theory of Talcott Parsons and the systemic approach of Niklas Luhmann, a model for functional analysis based on the scheme problem/solution is proposed. The advantages and limitations of this proposal are then discussed, and new approaches to contemporary functionalism are propo-sed.>>>
en: The dissemination of new kinds of communication based on digital technologies have changed dramatically the characteristics of culture and society, modifying the way we search and produce information. However, the analysis of this phenome-non by the social sciences is still shy and neglect the effects of digital technologies on society and, especially, on sociology itself. This article points to the challenges posed by technological changes to the sociology of 21st century, arguing that it is necessary not only to improve technological aspects of research – for exam-ple, command of software for qualitative and quantitative analysis and analysis of digital social networks – but also, and fundamentally, to advance in terms of the epistemological impact of these technologies for the sociological imagination. The first section presents the fundaments of digital sociology. The following describes the phenomenon of mass production of digital data and the challenges that this environment raises for sociology. The third section assesses the implications of the use of software for sociology. The last section makes the case that there is an urgent need for theoretical and methodological update of sociology in the face of mass production of digital data. Finally, it is argued that the future of sociology depends on its technological instrumentation combined with reflection in sight of a new horizon of issues in the digital age.>>>
LEONARDO FERNANDES NASCIMENTO
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en: Science, technology and innovation (STI) policies usually refer to economic gro-wth and competitiveness as its main objectives. In this article, I argue that in re-cent years conceptual frameworks in STI policies have emerged that discuss the adequacy of conventional policies to situations characterized by specific social challenges. These new frameworks give greater importance to social objectives rather than economic goals. I introduce three approaches that share this premise: (a) orientation to “grand challenges”, (b) Responsible research and innovation for emerging technologies and (c) innovation for social inclusion. In turn, I analyze whether these frameworks imply a shift away from generic economic objectives (a “post-competitive” turn). Finally, I conclude that we cannot speak of a coherent and systematic alternative framework but there is nevertheless a shared awareness of the limitations of conventional STI policies to address social issues where the economic return is not evident.>>>
en: During the 1990s, neoliberal policies were implemented in Argentina, which in-creased unemployment and poverty. In this context, part of the poor population became even more impoverished and resorted to informal waste collection as a survival strategy. In this situation, public space became not only a space for circu-lation, but also one for reproduction of living conditions, and, since the activity is carried out in full view of all, they had to set up “façades” so that to get recognition from others. Therefore, the aim of this paper is to analyze the interactions betwe-en these individuals and other actors, and how these waste pickers use public space in the city of Mar del Plata, an intermediate seaside city in Argentina. The research was conducted drawing on in-depth interview and observation, and also on City newspapers. The major findings concern the techniques they use to gain self-esteem and recognition from others.>>>
en: The article discusses the limits and possibilities of some participatory democracy experiments in regularization of urban land, by analyzing the experience of Porto Alegre (Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil). It adopts an interdisciplinary approach, which uses concepts of Political Science, Geography and Law, to support the impor-tance of participatory democracy in the process of regularization of urban land. The analysis of the major experiments conducted in Porto Alegre makes use of a typology that differentiates management participation from political participation. On the premise that political participation implies effective influence on policy--making, three participatory institutions are analyzed: Participatory Budgeting (Orçamento Participativo), Urban and Environmental Development City Council (Conselho Municipal de Desenvolvimento Urbano Ambiental) and Sustainable Development Integrated Project of Lomba do Pinheiro (Projeto Integrado De-senvolvimento Sustentável da Lomba do Pinheiro). Findings suggest that the lat-ter, in its planning phase, is an example of germinal political participation, as it has implemented participatory practices that allowed citizens to influence public decision-making in order to transform their own social reality.>>>
ANA MARIA ISAR DOS SANTOS GOMES
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MARÍLIA STEINBERGER
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en: Studies on police culture are scarce in Brazil. The few existing works result from qualitative researches that face difficulties for capturing not random variations in the dimensions of this culture. This paper aims to help fill these gaps through a survey study with the Paraná State Military Police. The focus is on one aspect of police culture that is relevant to the Brazilian reality: attitudes and views on hu-man rights. How do police agents of the PMPR see human rights? Do they share homogeneous views or there are variations within the Police institution? The pa-per seeks to answer these questions and test three hypotheses: that the military police agents in Paraná share rather unfavorable views of human rights; that older police agents are more resistant to human rights than younger ones; and that non-commissioned officers and police agents who work at street level share an occupational culture more averse to human rights than the commissioned officers and police agents involved in administrative activities. Collected data show that at-titudes of rejection towards human rights are predominant in PMPR. As expected, this rejection is higher among non-commissioned officers and street police agents. However, the highest rates of rejection to human rights considerations were found among the younger police agents. The implications of these findings are discussed.>>>
CLEBER DA SILVA LOPES
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EDNALDO APARECIDO RIBEIRO
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MARCOS ANTONIO TORDORO
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en: Looking through the articles that comprise the book Cultura e Sociedade: Brasil e Argentina, this review aims to reflect on how cultural products, especially the so-called cultural industry, have been addressed by sociology of culture in Brazil, and, at the same time, it seeks to identify new possibilities and approaches to this issues.>>>
ADRIANA NAOMI LEITE
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en: The recent book of Isabell Lorey, a German political and social theorist, draws on the overlap of precariousness as, on the one hand, a new governmental instrument in the postfordist era and, on the other hand, bearer of transformational power. Ins-pired by the multiplicty of the EuroMayDay and Occupy movements, Lorey widens Robert Castel ́s notion of precariousness and proposes to devise political alternati-ves based on a refusal of the feeling of insecurity. While stressing the book ́s contri-bution for sociological studies of recent social protests as well as of labor conditions, this review portrays and discusses the author ́s stimulating approach.>>>
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