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Polibotánica
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ISSN: 1405-2768 ISSN electrónico: 2395-9525
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Biología
Instituto Politécnico Nacional
México

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La versión estable de Redalyc 3.0 se libera en febrero de 2017. En la actualidad, se muestran los resultados de la marcación de artículos científicos mediante la herramienta gratuita Marcalyc, liberada en su primera versión el 1ro de septiembre de 2016 y que está pensada como un elemento central en la construcción y consolidación de un modelo de AA sustentable para Iberoamérica.
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en: This study makes a characterization of ar-boreal vegetation in two ravines in Tlatlaya region, Mexico State, located in Rio Balsas basin, it remarks the presence of Subde-ciduous Tropical Forest in the State and presents a 251 species list of vascular plants, included in 83 families and 182 genera. In the zone, it were found 42 tree species with higher importance values belonging to Guarea glabra (64.98 and 96.95) and Eugenia acapulcensis (28.30 and 84.51). The paper shows individual density values, diversity, dominance, importance values and evenness index for arboreal contingent in such ravines.>>>
Luis Isaac Aguilera-Gómez
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Irma Victoria Rivas-Manzano
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Isabel Martínez-De La Cruz
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Carlos Jorge Aguilar-Ortigoza
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en: Ninety eight species of polyporoid fungi belonging to 358 specimens proceeding of 15 localities in 9 municipalities of San Luis Potosi State were studied. The 98 species are classified in 3 orders of Agaricomycetes, the order Gloeophyllales with 1 family, 1 genus and 1 specie, the order Hymenochaetales with 2 families and a group as insertae se-dis, 10 genera and 33 species and the order Polyporales with 6 families, 32 genera and 64 species. Of these, 73 are cited for the first time to San Luis Potosi State, included Phellinus calcitratus, P. coffeatoporus and Ceriporia reticulata that are new records to Mexico.>>>
Víctor I. Álvarez
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Tania Raymundo
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Ricardo Valenzuela
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en: Trophic interactions impose important costs to their host plants, affecting patterns of resource allocation. The relationship between host and consumers is also influen-ced by the availability of resources, e.g., soil nutrients. In this study, we explored the relationship among mycorrhiza-plant- herbivore in natural populations of Datura stramonium and their correlation with the content of phosphorus, nitrogen and carbon in the soil. We estimated the vegetative and reproductive biomass of plants, the arbuscular mycorrhizal colonization and the level of herbivory in populations of D. stramonium. The local abundance of D. stramonium was negatively related to the content of phosphorus in the soil. In con-trast, soil carbon concentration affected positively the vegetative and reproductive mass of D. stramonium, although it was negatively correlated with the specific leaf area (SLA). Of the trophic interactions only herbivory was significantly correlated with the SLA and no relationship was detected between the two interaction types. The lack of significant response of mycorrhizae to the soil nutrients concentration, plant per-formance, and herbivory may result from the stochasticity in the availability of mycor- rhizal inoculum (identity and abundance) in the populations studied.>>>
Ana Aguilar-Chama
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es: El crecimiento lento y la escasez de especies nativas en Centro América, ha incrementado el uso de algunas especies exóticas, como teca y melina en las últimas décadas, dado su rápido crecimiento y la buena calidad de sus maderas. Un aspecto importante que no ha sido bien estudiado es la vulnerabilidad de estas maderas, en especial la de teca, al ataque de hongos causantes de podredum-bre de la madera utilizada en construcción. Varias especies del género Rigidoporus han sido comunicadas como causantes de po-dredumbre blanca en angiospermas y gim-nospermas a nivel mundial. En Costa Rica, Rigidoporus microporus ha sido reportada en tocones y troncos caídos de teca en plantaciones, pero no se han realizado estudios a nivel de laboratorio sobre los efectos que puede causar en las diferentes propiedades de la madera. Esta investigación se llevó a cabo para determinar los cambios que este hongo puede causar en las propiedades ana-tómicas, físicas, mecánicas y químicas de la madera de teca. Para determinar si existían diferencias en la severidad del ataque con respecto al estado de desarrollo del árbol, se utilizaron muestras de maderas provenientes de árboles con diferentes edades (albura y duramen de árboles de seis y 10 años). Se montaron 262 cámaras de podredumbre para realizar las diferentes pruebas y, se removie-ron muestras de madera de dichas cámaras cada mes durante seis meses para estudiar los cambios en las diferentes propiedades a través del tiempo. Los cambios más severos en la anatomía, y las pérdidas de peso y de resistencia más altas fueron obtenidos en las muestras de albura de seis años. Se observó un aumento en la cantidad de materiales solubles en 1% NaOH y en los contenidos de lignina en todas las muestras analizadas a partir del tercer mes y hasta el final de la prueba. La reducción en pérdida de masa y el aumento de la resistencia de la madera a la fuerza paralela de comprensión al grano estuvieron relacionadas tanto al tipo de ma-dera como a la edad del árbol de donde esta procedía. Se considera que el conocimiento de los daños potenciales que puede causar este hongo, puede ayudar a realizar una mejor selección de la madera y a desarrollar medidas de protección más efectivas en el campo o a nivel de construcción.>>>
E. Sarmiento-S.
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J. Carranza-V.
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en: Soil microorganisms are essential for growth, emergence and development in all plants. In our study we decided to evaluate the effect that A. agilis UMCV2 rhizobacte-ria had on germination and growth of plants of economic-forest interest as P. devonianato an age of 65 days. Our results show that the UMCV2 bacteria promoted growth of P. devoniana at this early stage of develop-ment, further highlighting that despite the short time of interaction between these two, the bacterium was able to increase the rate of germination, increase the size of shoot and generate a proliferation of lateral roots. The data shows a huge potential for using inoculum both in the greenhouse and in open ground and generate a growth promot-ing species of interest in both agricultural and forest, thereby reducing production periods depending on the crop.>>>
Wilber Montejo-Mayo
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Eduardo Valencia-Cantero
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Pablo López-Albarrán
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Crisanto Velázquez-Becerra
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en: Antihelmintic activity against Haemonchus contortus was searched as a new alternative for animal health improvement using three plants (Cydista aequinoctialis L., Heliotro-pium indicum L. and Momordica charantiaL.) of traditional usage in the rural area of Tabasco State, Mexico. Aqueous extracts were obtained of dried material. Each extract was diluted in distilled water to obtain a concentration of 20 mg ml-1. The antihelmintic activity was evaluated at 24, 48 y 72 h of exposition with 100 μL of each extract and 50 L3 unsheathed larvaes of H. contortus in a 96 well ELISA plaque. Distilled water was used as negative control and fenbendazole as positive control. All extracts of the three studied plants presen-ted antihelmintic activity and the highest mortality, 65.5% at 72 h, was recorded with the M. charantia fruit extract.>>>
Judith Espinosa-Moreno
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Dora Centurión-Hidalgo
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Gerardo Guillermo Vera y Cuspinera
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Eréndira Pérez-Castañeda
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Claudia Virginia Zaragoza-Vera
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Sara Martínez-Martínez
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Pedro Mendoza-de-Gives
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Manases González-Cortázar
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en: The Mesoamerican gene pool of wild lima bean (Phaseolus lunatus L., Fabaceae) is an important source of genes for genetic improvement of the species. Is widely dis-tributed from northern Mexico to northern Argentina. Reports in Mexico indicate that this gene pool is distributed from Sinaloa to Chiapas on the Pacific Coast and southern Tamaulipas to the Yucatan Peninsula on the Coast of Gulf of Mexico, as well as, in the Isthmus of Tehuantepec. However, despite the knowledge we have about the distribu-tion of this gene pool, in Mexico there are still collecting gaps and unexplored regions. The objective of this study was to collect wild populations of lima bean in Mexico to know its current distribution and establish management and conservation strategies. To do this, we collected within the natural distribution range of the Mesoamerican gene pool of lima bean in Mexico, with the passport data was designed a geographical distribution map and assessed the conserva-tion status of populations. Results indicated that wild populations of lima bean have a wide geographical distribution localized mainly in tropical deciduous forest and semideciduous and elevations from zero to 2 292 meters. In most wild population collected a low conservation status was observed, in consequence was proposed the development of strategies for in situ and ex situ conservation for wild populations with higher degree of erosion.>>>
Rubén H. Andueza-Noh
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Luciana Camacho-Pérez
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Jaime Martínez-Castillo
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Filogonio May-Pa
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en: Phenology of a species allows us to un-derstand and predict flowering and fruc-tification times useful in the management of deciduous tropical trees. This study was performed in three plantations (P1, P2 and P3) of Cordia dodecandra with different kind of management (P1, pruning, irriga-tion, weeding; P2, weeding; P3, without management), established in 2002 at Xma-tkuil, Yucatan. The evaluation covered the period of September (2011)-August (2012). The phenology was determinated once a month using Fournier method. Production was assessed by harvesting and counting all fruit of all trees from each orchard and fruit quality was weighed and measured the length and width of a sample (n = 20) and obtained the moisture content of the same putting them in a dryer at 60°C. Results showed that P1 presented 100% leaves in September 2011, and during the period November 2011- August 2012. The percen-tage of leaves decreased to 25% only in the month of October 2011. P2 y P3 lost all their leaves during the period December-March. Regarding flowering, P1 presented flowers in percentage of 25% most of the year ex-cept for the months of June and July when the presence of any floral structure was recorded. The peak was observed in March. The other two plantations, P2 and P3, bloo-med during the dry season (December to May). P2 presented a peak in February and P3 in March. Fructification in P1 showed in the months of October, November and January but the maximum production was in May, P2 in the months of January to June, showing a peak in March and P3 from February to May with a maximum in the month of May. The highest production and fruit quality was recorded in P1.>>>
Campos B. Simei M.
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Juan Jiménez-Osornio
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Roberto Barrientos M.
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en: Soil fertility in the first 20 cm of six plots and a cloud forest (MCF) still preserved in Santa María Chilchotla, north of Oaxaca, where the predominant MCF and grown landraces were evaluated. The soils are on slopes are shallow, rocky and not suitable for agriculture. Yields are low, the Mazatec perform traditional cultural practices such as minimum tillage as the terrain does not allow entering tractor or oxen, farmers do not burn, and do not use chemicals. Soil sampling randomly obtaining composite samples were made physical, chemical and biological properties were analyzed. The results showed that are medium textured soils, the pH of the MCF is extremely acid (4.5) and in the plots ranged from 5 to 6.9, organic carbon is high from 24 to 100 g kg-1, total nitrogen ranged from 1.4-8.3 g kg-1 me-dium and high values, available phosphorus was low with the exception of the plot three, the CEC ranged from 8.8 to 36 cmolesckg-1. They have high iron content of 20.26 to 94.18 mg kg-1 on BMM standing there also high in copper, zinc and manganese. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) showed a significant difference (р < 0.5) between the means of soil properties and soil analyzed than sodium. The multiple comparison test of Tukey was applied. Trap pots mycorrhizal fungi were isolated from different species. It is concluded that the soils of most of the plots are fertile, they are poor in phospho-rus, but everything indicates that they make up the AM fungi; no physical degradation was observed, its major limitation is the stoniness and steep slopes. The practice of minimum tillage, barriers of rocks that outcrop at the surface and leaving stumps of tree ferns prevent erosion. It aims to in-crease maize production experimenting with chemical fertilizers. To preserve the MCF recommends building their biological and ethnobotanical wealth, carbon sequestration Mazatec could receive a financial benefit.>>>
Irma Reyes-Jaramillo
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en: In Mexico the traditional markets are places that reflect the interaction between people and plants, so they come to define the iden-tity in the area where they are. The objective of the present study was to record marketing, use, and source of medicinal plants as well as the comparison between the markets of Izúcar de Matamoros and Acatlán de Osorio, in the State of Puebla. In order to achieve the proposed objective six visits to the ‘Revo-lution’ of Izúcar de Matamoros market and 24 to the “General Rafael Sanchez Taboada” market at of Acatlán de Osorio were made. Structured Interviews were made to people who sell the plants, in order to record their common name, use, preparation, route of administration, the kind of disease they cure, healing, cost per sample, origin of species, time in collecting them and, if they are indirectly bought, how much sellers pay for each one and how they learned the use of medicinal plants. The collection of the botanical material was conducted through the acquisition of samples in fresh and dry, for subsequent identification. The results showed that in the Izúcar de Matamoros market 1 133 stands were recorded; in 0.71% of them medicinal plants are sold; the num-ber of registered species was 49 -49 genera and 35 families- being the family Asteraceae the most outstanding, with 12 genera. As for its origin, 43 of these species are wild and 11 are grown, some of them have double per-formance. In the Acatlán de Osorio market 641 stands were registered, where the 1.71% are of medicinal plants; the number of medi-cinal species was 144, with 122 genera and 71 families. The most outstanding families were Asteraceae, Lamiaceae, and Fabaceae. From all the registered species of medicinal plants we found that 61 are introduced, 73 native and the origin of 10 of them is un-known. We also registered, according to the surveys applied to sellers, that 110 species are wild and 33 cultivated, all of which are sold both fresh and dry. The applied surveys showed that in the mentioned markets 31 plants are sold to cure 31 diseases, 25 at the Izúcar de Matamoros market, and 27 at the Acatlán de Osorio market. The most used part of the plants to cure the ailments are the leaves, stems and flowers, and the application is oral and local. The use of medicinal plants is to cure diseases of the respiratory, digestive, circulatory, excretory, nervous systems, as well as for the cultural syndrome. The way of selling them is as a bunch or as a compound. It is concluded that both markets are traditional and the most important sold families of plants are Aste-raceae, Lamiaceae, Fabaceae and Rutaceae; the market that presented a major recorded medicinal plants was the Acatlán de Osorio with 144 species. The majority of medicinal plants in both markets are to cure diseases of the digestive, excretory, nervous, respiratory and circulatory systems as well as cultural syndrome; most of the species are wild and the most used parts of the plants are the stem, leaves, flowers and fruits.>>>
David Martínez-Moreno
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Gerardo Valdéz-Eleuterio
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Francisco Basurto-Peña
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Agustina Rosa Andrés-Hernández
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Tobías Rodríguez-Ramírez
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Ariana Figueroa-Castillo
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