redalyc.org
logo de institución
Investigaciones Geográficas (Mx)
Revista Activa *
ISSN: 0188-4611
Cuatrimestral
Geografía Social
Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México
México

Revista en DOAJ


Normas para autores

Página de la revista
Sitio web de la institución editora


Contacto
Redalyc 3.0 versión beta.
La versión estable de Redalyc 3.0 se libera en febrero de 2017. En la actualidad, se muestran los resultados de la marcación de artículos científicos mediante la herramienta gratuita Marcalyc, liberada en su primera versión el 1ro de septiembre de 2016 y que está pensada como un elemento central en la construcción y consolidación de un modelo de AA sustentable para Iberoamérica.
es: Se presentan en este artículo algunos aspectos generales del programa de investigación que se inició en los años setenta sobre teoría e historia de la geografía, y su desarrollo posterior. Se aborda primero el problema de las relaciones entre geografía, ciencia y filosofía a partir del Renacimiento y hasta fines del siglo XVIII . En segundo lugar, la evolución de la geografía en los siglos XIX-XX , y se justifica el marco teórico adoptado para su análisis. Finalmente se alude brevemente a las nuevas vías que se abren hoy a partir de los desarrollos de las nuevas tecnologías de la información y la comunicación. La geografía puede aportar su manejo de conceptos espaciales, los cuales fueron ampliamente incorporados y reformulados a partir de los años cincuenta, y que permi- ten elaborar teorías sobre la localización, la distribución de fenómenos y sus asociaciones en la superficie terrestre. Ello es especialmente importante hoy, cuando la cantidad de datos disponibles es inmensa y crece continuamente. En esta situación conviene reafirmar la importancia de la tradición positivista y cuantitativa en la geografía, sin perder por ello las aportaciones críticas que ha tenido la disciplina en el últi- mo medio siglo, y las que se han hecho en diversas ramas de la geografía humana, desde la geografía histórica a la cultural.>>>en: Some general aspects of the research program that began in the 1970s on the theory and history of geography, and its further development are presented in this paper. It addresses, first, the problem of the relationship between geography, science and philosophy from the Renaissance to the late Eighteenth century. Second, it refers to the evolution of geography in the Nineteenth and Twentieth centuries, and justifies the theoretical framework adopted for its analysis. Finally it alludes briefly to the new ways that open today from the developments of new information and communications technologies. Geography can contribute its handling of spatial con- cepts, which were widely incorporated and reformulated from the 1950s, and which allow theorizing about the loca- tion, distribution of phenomena and their associations in the earth’s surface. This is especially important today, when the amount of data available is vast and is continually growing. In this situation it is critical to reaffirm the impor- tance of quantitative and positivist tradition in geography. Without losing the critical contributions that the discipline had in the last half century, and the ones that they have been made in various branches of human geography, from the historical to cultural geography.>>>
es: La zona cafetera colombiana está ubicada en- teramente en el hemisferio norte, entre los 1 y 11° grados de latitud, sobre la cordillera de los Andes. Esta condición (ecuatorial andina) ha hecho que se dé por sentado que la variación temporal de la temperatura es mínima y que por ello, en su mayor parte la variabilidad de este elemento es es- pacial, atribuible casi exclusivamente a los cambios en altura sobre el nivel del mar. En este estudio se exploran factores de variación alternas, que muestran cómo, además de la altitud, otros factores, como la latitud, la zona de conver- gencia intertropical, El Niño Oscilación del Sur y el Cambio Climático, inciden sobre esta variable climática, que a su vez ejerce un papel fundamental sobre las plantaciones de cafeto.>>>en: Abstract . The Colombian coffee zone is located entirely in the northern hemisphere, between 1 and 11 degrees of lati- tude, in the Andean mountains. This condition (equatorial) has led people to think that the temporal variation of air temperature is minimal and that the greater variability of this element is given in the spatial scale, almost exclusively attributable to changes in altitude. By using descriptive statistics, cluster analysis, and linear regression, we explore alternate sources of variation in the air temperature, showing how, also the altitude there are other variation sources. We found that the altitude is a main modulator of the air tem- perature; however, the effect depends on the latitude. The lowest weather station (903 meters above sea level and at 8°N) does not have the highest air temperatures. The hottest station is at 1 026 meters above sea level but nearest the equator (0°N), showing a latitudinal effect when the latitude is greater than 7°. This effect is greater for minimum tempe- ratures than for maximum. The Inter-Tropical Confluence Zone ( ITCZ ) can modulate the air temperature. In most of the stations located between 2 and 7°N, the air tempera- ture gets maximum values when the ITZC is in its extreme North and South positions. It means, between December and January and between July and September, maximum temperatures tend to be higher than in any other month. Minimum temperatures are not affected by ITCZ as much as maximum temperatures are, indicating that this variable is impacted by the day-night cycle more than for the ITCZ . El Niño Southern Oscillation affects the air temperature in the coffee zone. During “El Niño”, the air temperature increases, while it decreases during “La Niña” events. However, there is a higher relation between maximum air temperatures and ENSO than between this phenomenon and the minimum air temperatures. The effect of this phenomenon on the air temperature is higher during the first semester of the year, specifically between January and March. On the other hand, there is evidence to think that the air temperature is changing in the analyzed stations. For example, 47% of the analyzed stations exhibit changes (trends) in maximum air temperature values. Most of the trends are positive (air temperature increasing), but there are some places where the values have been decreasing. However, 84% of the analyzed minimum air temperature series have significative trends. Most of the locations have been seeing increasing air temperature values over the last decades.>>>
Edna Paola Pérez Rendón
Crea tu propia página
Víctor Hugo Ramírez Builes
Crea tu propia página
Andrés Javier Peña Quiñones
Crea tu propia página
es: En Comachuén, una comunidad indígena de la Sierra Purépecha, Michoacán, occidente de México, los productores agrícolas tienen un amplio conocimiento sobre sus paisajes y tierras los cuales clasifican con diversos criterios y en diferentes niveles. Los paisajes son unidades territoriales de gran significancia en la vida cotidiana de la comunidad. El concepto de tierra que utilizan es de carácter sistémico e integrador. Las tierras agrícolas son clasificadas con base en diversos criterios como: ubicación, clima, propiedades organolépticas y calidad/fertilidad. La interpretación del conocimiento etnogeográfico de esta comunidad muestra una gran complejidad en sus conceptos y en algunos casos con equivalencias con los del conocimiento científico. En la literatura científica se evidencia la gran riqueza de cono- cimientos sobre el paisaje en diversas partes del mundo, particularmente en grupos indígenas o comunidades tradi- cionales A pesar de esta riqueza cultural, estos conocimientos no están suficientemente documentados y corren el riesgo de perderse conforme los grupos culturales tradicionales tienden a ser desarticulados. El objetivo de este trabajo es documentar y analizar el conocimiento etnogeográfico de una comunidad indígena y resaltar su importancia para eventuales planes de uso/conservación de recursos naturales y culturales al nivel local y regional.>>>en: The study of indigenous groups everywhere in the world indicates a thorough knowledge in natural resources, including soils, plants, animals, and more widely in lands- cape and landscape management in space and time. During centuries indigenous communities have established a strong relationship with their natural environments, and have developed knowledge systems and classificatory frameworks for both biotic and non biotic landscape components. The vision is however integrated, holistic, and society is actually perceived as embedded in nature. Studying these knowledge systems is important because despite their contribution to landscape understanding especially in tropical regions, they run the risk of being lost together with the societies that create them. In addition, in spite of substantial research efforts, these systems have been poorly documented. The purpose of this article is to document and analyze the ethnogeographic, landscape knowledge in Comachuen, a purepecha community in the State of Michoacán, and to highlight its usefulness in natural resource management. To this end, we developed a co-investigation, participatory sche- me, involving a group of community members, with whom we work during several months, in the field, between 2008 and 2010. Field work consisted on geographic transects along forests and cropland, coupled to in-depth interviews, to 24 local producers, all of them native speakers of the pu- repecha language. 1 Participatory mapping was recorded on a hard copy at a detailed scale of a digital elevation model and satellite imagery depicting terrain, and land-use. We thus differentiated terrain and land suitability classes, as well as 1 The first autor is native speaker of this language. peasant landscape mapping units. These schemes are hierar- chic, and encompass different, nested levels of generaliza- tion. The first and second levels are discriminated by climatic conditions, whilst the third corresponds to local landscape classes. These classes recognize either geoforms, as is the case in technical landforms studies, or territorial sites, which are unique and labeled by a toponym ( parajes ). In the next level, terrains are classified according to land quality criteria, coupled to localtion, and micro-climate. The most common term is Echér’i, a purépecha concept meaning land or terrain. In Comachuen, three types of terrain are recognized on the basis or color and texture: sandy, red and silty. In turn, these terrains are subdivided according to specific properties concerning quality, particularly for cropland. In conclusion, local, traditional landscape knowledge is able to formulate hierarchic classificatory systems at different geographic scale, encompassing climate, terrain, soil and land-use.>>>
Juan Pulido Secundino
Crea tu propia página
Gerardo Bocco Verdinelli
Crea tu propia página
es: El proceso de envejecimiento de la población iniciado en el último tercio del siglo XX en los países más desarrollados, se está extendiendo al resto del mundo en el siglo XXI , coincidiendo con la creciente urbanización del planeta que afecta igualmente a todos los territorios, aun- que con diferencias patentes entre los países más y menos desarrollados. En este trabajo se revisan las interacciones de envejecimiento y urbanización y algunas de sus implicaciones en la sociedad. Se centra en la situación actual de las personas mayores que cada vez suponen más altas proporciones de la población de cada país y que afrontan grandes dificultades en su día a día, derivadas de sus limita- ciones personales, a las que se añaden las múltiples barreras urbanas de unas ciudades pensadas para la población joven y sana.>>>en: Population ageing and urbanization are two global trends that together comprise major forces shaping the 21st century. At the same time as cities are growing, their share of residents aged 65 years and more is increasing. The world is currently experiencing two major demographic transitions: the ageing of populations and urbanization. The trend in today ́s planetary human society is restructuring throughout two fundamental and simultaneous processes with serious socio-economic implications. The urban environment influences the health and qua- lity of older people ́s life. By 2050, more than two-thirds of the world’s population will be living in cities. And, at least, a quarter of urban populations will be aged 65 and over, with significant implications for urban planning and development. Increasingly, cities will need to balance their role as drivers of economic development with responsibilities for improving the quality life of elderly people. In 2015, worldwide, 8 percent of the population is over 65 years and in the most developed and urbanized countries the percentage raises to 17 percent. Between 1950 and 2015, the total world population increased by 191 percent. Howe- ver, in the same period, the population of older people rose.>>>
Aurora García Ballesteros
Crea tu propia página
Beatriz Cristina
Instituto Universitario de Posgrado
España
pt: Este artigo tem o objetivo de propor uma catego- ria de centralidade baseada nos deslocamentos de viagem atraídos por uma região, classificando-os em função dos motivos de viagem e avaliando os reflexos sobre a estrutura monopolicentrica da Região Metropolitana do Estado do Rio de Janeiro ( RMRJ ). A análise teve como base os dados de origem e destino ( OD ) disponibilizados pela secretaria estadual de transportes, contidos no PDTU , Plano Diretor de Transporte Urbano. Para se definir os limites inferior e superior das classes intituladas eixos de centralidade se uti- lizou de um modelo de otimização que classifica os dados utilizando “quebras naturais”. A análise permitiu reconhecer a concentração de deslocamentos totais atraídos pelo muni- cípio do Rio de Janeiro, principalmente devido aos volumes originados e mantidos entre as zonas da própria cidade. Também foi possível verificar que o centro é o principal, mas não o único eixo de centralidades, enfatizando que os motivos de viagem podem contribuir para a materialização da monopolicentralidade na região.>>>es: Este artículo tiene como objetivo proponer una categoría de centralidad basado en desplazamientos de via- jes atraídos por una región, clasificándolos de acuerdo con los motivos del viaje y la evaluación de los efectos sobre la estructura monopolicentrica de la Zona Metropolitana del Estado de Río de Janeiro ( RMRJ ). El análisis se basa en la fuente de datos y el destino ( OD ) proporcionada por el de- partamento estatal de transporte, que figura en PDTU . Para definir los límites inferior y superior de las clases tituladas ejes de centralidad se utilizó para un modelo de optimización que clasifica los datos utilizando “cortes naturales”. El aná- lisis permitió reconocer la concentración del total de viajes atraídos por el municipio de Río de Janeiro, principalmente debido a los volúmenes originados y mantenidos entre las zonas de la ciudad en sí. También se observó que el centro es el principal, pero no el único eje de centralidades, haciendo hincapié en las razones por las que viajan pueden contribuir a la materialización de monopolicentralidade en la región.>>>
José André Villas Bôas Mello
Crea tu propia página
Andrea Justino Ribeiro Mello
Crea tu propia página
Romulo Dante Orrico Filho
Crea tu propia página
es: Este artículo analiza las guías urbanas como una producción cultural que “impone a los viajeros” una percepción espacial de la Ciudad de México (Diego, 2014:60). El análisis centra la atención en los cambios de los espacios urbanos de las guías bajo una amplia tempora- lidad de estudio, desde finales del siglo XVIII , al XIX y hasta 1940. Se presenta, primero, el tránsito del mundo colonial religioso a finales del siglo XVIII a la nueva vida comercial de la capital mexicana en las guías de 1842 y 1854. Sigue el cambio de la función administrativa y comercial, en la guía de 1882, a los primeros itinerarios urbanos en la edición de 1891. Interesa situar el contraste entre el pane- gírico material de la ciudad y las miserias urbanas de la guía de 1901, en el contexto de relativa paz y tranquilidad del Porfiriato. Se propone, al final, una integración interpreta- tiva para situar el cambio de la percepción espacial en una escala temporal, entre los itinerarios urbanos de la guía de 1891 y los circuitos regionales de la guía de 1940 del Valle de México.>>>en: This article analyzes the urban guides of Mexico City from a wide time-lapse perspective, from the end of the eighteenth century to the nineteenth century and up to 1940, in order to detect major themes and the change of urban perception. In foreigner’s guide outlines, from 1792 to 1793, the Cathedral’s central position conferred strength to the maps inserted in such editions. It is worth noting the subliminal role of this document regarding urban per- ception, social behavior and the maintenance of religious devotion in the capital of New Spain. After Mexico’s inde- pendence these guides lacked novelty. During the years bet- ween 1842 and 1854, this editorial genre was reactivated in the Mexican capital. In those years the guides were included in an attempt to fulfill the increasing need for information about the city regarding political, judicial, ecclesiastical and military aspects including, as the main novelty, the conti- nuously expansive commercial sector. While guide editions were modified in order to satisfy the consumption and preferences of the nascent urban bourgeoisie, both editors and authors detected novel concerns among readers, not only about commercial life but they also looked for pleasant and ludic experiences in the city. In the guides from the period 1882 to 1891 there is a substantial change of spatial perception of Mexico City. Without losing attention to commercial life, which was be- coming progressively more complex and diversified, for the first time the guide’s pages proposed the discovery of the city under a different perspective. In regard to this, the figure of Antonio García Cubas was essential for the generation and internalization of new habits in order to travel across the.>>>
Héctor Mendoza Vargas
Crea tu propia página
es: Este artículo tiene como objetivo analizar los patrones espaciales del delito de robo de vehículos en la Ciudad de México. Las grandes áreas metropolitanas de América Latina han atestiguado el incremento de la violencia urbana y la Zona Metropolitana de la Ciudad de México ( ZMCM ) no es la excepción. Uno de los delitos con el mayor número de averiguaciones previas en la ZMCM es el robo de vehículos con un promedio de 40 336 durante el periodo 1995-2007. En 2010 el robo de vehículos alcanzó las 44 446 averiguaciones previas, representando el 38% del total de las averiguaciones previas registradas en la enti- dad. Sin embargo, este delito no muestra una distribución homogénea en todo el territorio sino que muestra una alta concentración en algunas delegaciones de la Ciudad de México como Benito Juárez, Coyoacán y Cuauhtémoc. En este contexto nos preguntamos ¿Existe relación espacial entre la concentración de los robos de vehículos y las características socioeconómicas del entorno? El soporte teórico del artículo lo proporcionan teorías como la desorganización social y las actividades rutinarias. La información usada del robo de vehículos corresponde a las denuncias hechas por las personas afectadas y que se convirtieron en averigua- ciones previas, la fuente de información es la Procuraduría General de Justicia del Distrito Federal ( PGJDF , 2010). El resto de las variables socioeconómicas corresponden al XII Censo de Población y Vivienda (2010), ambas a nivel de área geoestadística básica ( AGEB ). La metodología es mixta, para medir la relación espacial se aplicaron algunas técnicas de análisis regional como el cociente de localización, un modelo de regresión lineal múltiple y análisis exploratorio de datos espaciales en especifico el Índice de Moran. Los resultados identifican cuatro variables tales como el uso del suelo no residencial, la densidad de población, los hogares con jefatura femenina y concentración de población joven como factores que influyen en el robo de vehículos. Lo anterior permite diseñar políticas públicas de seguridad centradas en los lugares en los que se puedan poner en marcha programas orientados a la prevención situacional del delito, así como la prevención social del delito, orientados a la reconstrucción del tejido social y organización comunitaria.>>>en: This paper analyzes the spatial patterns of motor vehicle theft crimes in Mexico City. The largest metropolitan areas in Latin-America are witnessing a sharp escalation of urban violence and the Metropolitan Area of Mexico City is not the exception. In the Metropolitan Area of Mexico City the motor vehicle theft is one of the crimes that have higher arrest and criminal warrants with 40 336 in average during the 1995 to 2007 period. In 2010 motors vehicle theft reached 44 446 criminal warrants, representing the 39% of all criminal warrants in the city. However, such crime does not show a homogenous spatial pattern but shows a high spatial concentration in some delegations of Mexico City such as Benito Juárez, Coyoacán and Cuauhtémoc. In this context, the research question is: Does exists spatial relationship between concentration of motor vehicle theft and from the environment ( e.g. behavioral contagion).The data includes arrests and criminal warrants of motor vehicle theft provided by the General Office of Justice of the Federal District ( PGJDF , 2010) and the rest of socioeconomic va- riables were provided by the Housing and Population Census , 2010, all of them at census tract level. The methodology used includes regional analysis techniques such as location quotient, multiple regression analysis and exploratory spatial data analysis ESDA in specific the Moran Indice. This is per- formed within reasonable limits of data reliability, sampling error, and in disconnection from theoretical postulates. The results of the multiple regression identify variables such as none residential land use, population density, female-headed households, single and concentration of young population influence motor vehicle theft crimes. These findings allow us to design public security polices focused in places where could implement programs oriented to the situational prevention of the crime and the social prevention of crime. Besides, the results provide findings for urban planning and social development policies with police strategies.>>>
Omar Armando Sánchez Salinas
Crea tu propia página
César Mario Fuentes Flores
Crea tu propia página
pt: Nas três últimas décadas, os países periféricos exi- biram um aumento de sua importância no cenário mundial, particularmente no que diz respeito à realização de fluxos de capitais produtivos. O objetivo subjacente ao texto é analisar as estratégias corporativas de internacionalização produtiva adotadas pelos grupos econômicos Mexichem e Tigre, respectivamente, maiores produtores de tubos e conexões do México e do Brasil. O texto apresenta as dife- rentes trajetórias dos grupos, os principais ramos, os espaços de atuação e as formas de inserção internacional. Esse texto traz duas importantes conclusões: primeiro, os principais fatores que levaram à internacionalização produtiva dos dois grupos foram a necessidade crescente de novos espaços de acumulação, em função da desaceleração econômica e da concentração do mercado interno, e a participação na batalha pela concentração oligopólica no ramo de tubos e conexões de PVC em escala mundial; segundo, as estratégias multiterritoriais de internacionalização produtiva (setoriais e formas de entrada) refletem as trajetórias de consolidação desses capitais particulares em seus respectivos mercados. A ideia original subjacente ao trabalho é que as capacidades distintivas construídas pelos grupos durante o processo de consolidação no mercado interno têm sido usadas para alterar os padrões de concorrência na indústria de tubos e conexões nas diversas escalas.>>>en: In the last three decades, the peripheral countries have played an increasing role on the international scene, mainly with regard to Foreign Direct Investment Flows ( FDI ). This increase is due not only to the economic crisis in developed economies, but also to the rapid economic expansion of countries like Brazil, China and India, which constituted a solid basis for that their companies continued to expand abroad. From the 1990s, PVC pipes and fittings industry in Latin America witnessed an intense process of concentration and centralization of capital, which led to the internationalization of the Tigre, Mexichem e Alexis Latinoamerica business groups, respectively. The productive internationalization was a response to three factors, inclu- ding high concentration of the internal market, stagnation of the construction industry and unrestrained economic libe- ralization, culminating in the deepening of the oligopolistic competition in the various spatial scales. This article aims to analyze the productive internationalization strategies adop- ted by Mexichem and Tigre business groups, respectively, largest manufacturers of PVC pipes and fittings in Mexico and Brazil. In order to achieve this purpose, we adopted as methodological procedures the bibliographic selection and reading, data collection and compiling provided by the groups in their annual reports and information disclosed by the online news portal targeted to the business markets (Exame and CNN Expansión), systematization of data and information in the light of theoretical reflections relating to internationalization and market structures of the pipes and fittings industry. Throughout the text are highlighted different trajectories, main branches, overseas operations and international integration forms of the business groups. Two important conclusions are indicated. First, the main factors that led to the productive internationalization of both groups were the growing need for new dynamic spaces of capital accumulation, due to the economic slowdown and the market concentration, and participation in the struggle for oligopolistic concentration of the PVC pipes and fittings industry on a global scale. Second, multi-territorial strategies of productive internationalization (sectoral and market entry) reflect the consolidation trajectories of these business groups in their respective markets. Our original idea is that the distinctive capabilities built by the groups during the consolidation process in the domestic market have been used to change the patterns of international competition in the PVC pipes and fittings industry at various scales. Therefore, our thesis is that the process of internationalization of the two groups is related to the construction of specific skills that must be understood in the light of factors such as consolidation in the domestic market, industry structure in which they operate and inter-capitalist competition (creative destruction, concentration and centralization of capital) on a global scale.>>>
Leandro Bruno Santos
Crea tu propia página
es: El objetivo de este trabajo es contribuir al cono- cimiento del concepto de escala para la comprensión geo- gráfica e integral de los problemas de socio-ambientales en México. Este objetivo se lleva a cabo mediante la compara- ción de las dimensiones escalares de las políticas territoriales de adaptación al cambio climático y del cambio de uso de suelo, dos procesos socio-ambientales que representan dos vertientes diferentes de análisis geográfico. El trabajo pre- senta los principales elementos que se han debatido en los últimos años en la literatura anglosajona sobre el concepto de escala, así como los diferentes elementos y dimensiones que lo componen: la extensión, la resolución, el nivel, la jerarquía, el problema de la unidad de área modificable y las falacias espaciales. Al aplicar dichos principios a la comparación entre dos problemas geográficos de naturaleza epistemológica diferente, se pone de manifiesto la importan- cia que tiene este concepto para el pensamiento geográfico y la necesidad de generar reflexiones sistemáticas en este sentido para la geografía que se produce en lengua española. Para la política de cambio climático, los resultados sugieren que la falta de integración conceptual y programática entre las políticas de los diferentes niveles, así como la relación concurrente entre ellas, genera un problema para producir resultados efectivos de adaptación. En relación con el cam- bio de uso del suelo, la visión escalar revela que las directas (próximas) e indirectas (subyacentes) operan en múltiples jerarquías; asimismo, sus consecuencias biofísicas, sociales y económicas se manifiestan en diferentes escalas de espacio y tiempo.>>>en: The aim of this paper is to contribute to the knowledge of the concept of scale for an integrated geogra- phical understanding of socio-environmental problems in Mexico. This objective is accomplished by comparing the same scalar dimensions of two different problems: the first one is adaptation to climate change policies in Mexico, and the second is deforestation. This paper presents the main elements that have been discussed in recent years in the Anglo literature on the concept of scale, particularly the extent, resolution, level, hierarchy, the problem of modifiable area unit and spatial fallacies. The properties of geographical concepts emerge and can be observed according to the combination of scalar elements. The most fundamental scalar principles discussed in the field refer to identify the combination of elements in which it is possible to observe each geographical phenomena’s variability, characteristics and properties. One of the most relevant problems of the scalar thinking refers to the Modifiable Areal Unit Problem ( MAUP ), which stems from the data aggregation; the relevant values represented for each spatial unit relate to each other in different ways according to how they organized within a hierarchical structure. Data aggregation affects how the variability and heterogeneity of a phenomenon can be observed, given that the change of scale may show or hide specific properties of the dataset in a change of resolution. This problem is relevant for the inferences that stem from the data, given that individualistic or ecological fallacies may emerge if the dataset characteristics are not correctly inter- preted in terms of representation, similarity or heterogeneity. Applying these principles to the comparison between two different geographical problems of different epistemo- logical nature, we show the importance of this concept for the geographical thought; the comparison highlights the need to generate systematic reflections in this regard for the Geography produced in Spanish language. Regarding the socio-environmental problems addressed, the climate change adaptation policies in Mexico show a lack of conceptual and programmatic integration in diffe- rent levels; the lack of an adequate concurrent relationship between them creates a problem to generate effective results for adaptation. We identify three policy levels (global, na- tional and local), in which we briefly examine the relevant policy instrument and actor(s) that negotiate, design and/ or implement it in each level. For the international level we briefly present the role of the Mexican government on the negotiation and adoption of the Kyoto Protocol principles and goals; for the national level, we examine the approach and jurisdiction of the Special Program of Climate Change and the related juridical field; for the local level, we discuss the Municipal Climate Action Programmes, their design and scope, as well as the lack density that has prevented these instrument to influence other policy levels.>>>
Naxhelli
Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México
México
Leopoldo Galicia
Crea tu propia página
es: En la frontera México-Estados Unidos se han llevado a cabo varias iniciativas transfronterizas de planificación territorial, mayoritariamente entre las conurbaciones transfronterizas. La planificación transfronteriza se ha abordado desde la perspectiva de la construcción institucional; complementaria a ésta, se analizan los imaginarios espaciales en los que se apoya y, a la vez, reproduce. En la región formada por Matamoros, Tamaulipas y Brownsville, Texas, se ha contabilizado un total de seis iniciativas, en las que simultáneamente se da la desactivación de la frontera y la reproducción de la diferenciación territorial. Ello se refleja en la construcción de una unidad transfronteriza, la segregación de los usos del suelo siguiendo la división fronteriza, en el predominio del desarrollo económico y las infraestructuras de transporte transfronterizas y las relaciones desiguales entre uno y otro lado de la frontera.>>>en: Cross-border regional planning is a recent phe- nomenon, which its first initiatives date back to 1960s. Currently some experiences have been conducted, most of them in Europe. The weak development of this phenome- non lies on the obstacles and limitations that it has to deal with. Those obstacles derive from the asymmetries between the political and administrative systems, urban and spatial policies, land planning and land uses, etc. on each side of an international border. In a great extent, cross-border planning has been theoretically approached from an insti- tutional construction perspective. However, in this research it has been adopted the symbolic regional construction perspective that allows to analyze cross-border regional planning through spatial imaginaries. In this sense, cross- border planning is understood as a result of the interaction between regional actors and the social constructed values and meanings (geographical, cultural, social, economic, historical, etc.) given to border and cross-border regions. This investigation pursues, in first place, to determine the spatial imaginaries on which cross-border planning is constructed and, at the same time, the spatial imaginaries that cross-border planning reproduces; in second place, to determine in which way cross-border planning contributes to deactivate the border (deborder) or, on the contrary.>>>
Xavier Oliveras González
Crea tu propia página
Federico Fernández Christlieb
Crea tu propia página
uaem-pie
Sistema de Información Científica Redalyc
Red de Revistas Científicas de América Latina y el Caribe, España y Portugal
Universidad Autónoma del Estado de México
Versión 3.0 beta | 2016
redalyc@redalyc.org
Pie piepag