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Corpoica. Ciencia y Tecnología Agropecuaria
Revista Activa *
ISSN: 0122-8706
Cuatrimestral
Agrociencias
Corporación Colombiana de Investigación Agropecuaria
Colombia



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en: In the industry of panela (called uncentrifuged sugar by the FAO), is estimated that multiple-effect evaporators (EME), allow greater control and increases by 36 % the overall efficiency of process. However, the implementation of these technologies requires the technical adjustment of the process; it keeps the quality of panela obtained in open systems evaporation too. Condition has unveiled a technological gap with respect to influence of the complex reactions that occur during water evaporation and concentration of sugars on the characteristics of sugar cane and brown sugar. To fill part of this technological gap, the objective of the work presented here was determine the effect of the variables of evaporation, pressure and heat flux on the quality of sugar cane and the panela. To achieve this, it worked one experimental design, completely at randomized with 4x3 factorial arrangement, four repetitions and the variety of cane CC 85-46, without flocculant, adjuvant or antifoam. The results showed that heat flow densities of 17 kW/m2 and pressurized systems, adversely affect quality of panela in areas such as color, pH, glycoside and solidification rate, to the point of not meeting the requirements of resolution 779 of the Colombian Ministry of Social Protection from sucrose and reducing sugars.>>>
Luz Esperanza Prada Forero
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Hugo Reinel García Bernal
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Arlex Chaves Guerrero
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es: La estimación de la productividad en caña de azúcar resulta de gran importancia para la economía colombiana. En el presente trabajo, se aplica el modelo de Productividad Primaria Neta (PPN) a escala regional de Kumar y Monteith. Se hacen análisis espacio-temporales con técnicas de geomática y caracterización edafoclimáticas del entorno. También, se realizaron monitoreos de campo, para adquirir la información fisiológica de las plantas evaluadas y las condiciones edáficas de la plantación objeto de estudio. Los datos colectados fueron analizados en el software ArcGIS 10.1. Como resultado, se obtuvo una serie de mapas temáticos de la distribución espacio-temporal de las características del suelo y biofísicas de la plantación. Se calcularon las variables fPAR, PAR, EUR de la ecuación del modelo, mediante percepción remota y modelos matemáticos relacionados a través del índice de vegetación de diferencia normalizada (por su sigla en inglés, NDVI) y radiación fotosintética incidente registrada por el sensor en tierra. Esta información se validó mediante pruebas de laboratorio de las propiedades físicas y químicas de suelos, para comparar las condiciones edafoclimáticas y las variables biofísicas relacionadas con la ganancia de biomasa. Los resultados muestran que de la información geográfica (SIG) y los datos edáficos y climáticos registrados en campo permiten anticipar las respuestas fisiológicas de la plantación, objetivo de estudio en el presente trabajo.>>>
Fabio Rueda Calier
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Luis Alfonso Peñaranda Mallungo
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Wilmer Leonardo
Fundación Universitaria de San Gil
Colombia
Sergio Antonio Díaz Báez
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en: The catch of the giant squid (Dosidicus gigas), represents de second fishing activity most important in volume in Baja California Sur, Mexico; is an essential specie not only at the state level but at the pacific and even the national level. Mexico occupies in the world the eight level in the production of squid, but the national consumption, even though the low price of the product and the high nutritional level, is approximately 0.53 kg per year, very low compared to countries like Japan, Korea and Spain (average consumption per capita is of 3.5 kg). In this context, the objective of this article is to caracterize the sudcalifornia consumer preference; determine the buying habits and the consumption; and also to establish the market areas of the squid in Baja California Sur, which allows the introduction of actions for its commercialization, in order to strengthen the market of this product and its general activity. This is why in 2012 a questioner of 1066 consumers was distribute around the five counties of the state, according to the population density. The results indicate that the principal motive why there is not consumption is the difficulty to find places where to buy it, together with the problems of cooking it. Also, it can be seen the high level of ignorance the consumer has regarding the nutritional level this food has. For this reason, future strategies for the commercialization must be focus on better distribution and new form of presenting this product which facilitates its preparation and consumption, and at the same time create campaign which increase awareness of the nutrition level this product has.>>>
Iliana Enriqueta Montaño Méndez
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Luis Alberto Hernández González
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Hiram Lomelí Mayoral
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Francisco Javier Mesías Díaz
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Adanelly Ávila Arce
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en: It is expected that climate change modifies the current spatial pattern of coffee cultivation in mountainous slopes of Colombia. However, the approaches used to reach these results are based on the use of (global and regional) climate models and species distribution models that largely supported in the niche concept. In order to assess the certainty of the results obtained with these models, a methodology in which data from weather stations and an index of agroclimatic type (thermal time), expressed as degree days are used. The best approximation for thermal time calculation was determined. Then, a multiyear monthly accumulated of coffee degree-days and coffee berry borer degree-days were generated (using the simple triangle method) by using daily data from weather stations with more than 20 years of information. The nonparametric trend analysis (Mann-Kendall) and correlation analysis were used to determine effects of climate variability associated with the occurrence of El Niño and La Niña, on the thermal time of the two mentioned species. Significant, positive trends, in coffee degree-days and coffee berry borer degree-days were found at heights (above sea level) where the optimum coffee growth is reported.>>>
Carolina Ramírez C.
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Jhoana Daza G.
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Andrés J. Peña Q.
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en: A research was carried out at Corpoica´s La Selva, Experiment Station located at Rionegro, Antioquia, Colombia, at 2.120 masl in the ecological zone Low Mountain Rain Forest. The objective was to characterize growth and development of andean blueberry Vaccinium meridionale Sw., plants, obtained by seed and clonal propagation, from a wild population of the species. Four plants of each type were transplanted to rizhotrons, with glasses on two sides, which allowed the root growth recording. The plants coming from seed spent 1.663 days from sowing to flowering, and those derived from rooted cuttings 1.367 days. In both types, the roots lack root hairs. Also, in both kinds of materials, there was evidence for non alternating periods of root and aerial organs growth, with 6.28 and 7.00 as allometric indexes between the aerial part and the roots for the individuals obtained by sexual and asexual propagation. In spite of the occurrence of periods of increased flower production, after the beginning of the flowering to the end of the research, these organs were detected in both types of materials. There was a greater interplant variability in the growth values obtained in the sexual plants than those of the clonal ones.Q>>>
Clara Inés Medina Cano
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Mario Lobo Arias
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Álvaro Arley Castaño Colorado
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Luis Eduardo Cardona
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es: Se estudió el efecto de los factores ambientales sobre la población de Monalonion velezangeli Carvalho & Costa en aguacate cv. Hass, plantado en los Andes colombianos. Se obtuvieron datos de clima correspondientes al período 2010-2011, usando seis estaciones meteorológicas automáticas. La actividad del insecto fue monitoreada mediante el registro de individuos de M. velezangeli y la presencia de daño fresco en doce ramas marcadas en cada árbol, ubicadas en los cuatro puntos cardinales, en los estratos bajo, medio y alto. Se establecieron relaciones entre los índices de población obtenidos con valores de temperatura, humedad relativa y velocidad del viento, mediante representaciones Biplot y análisis de correlación. Estos análisis se hicieron no solo con los registros tomados el mismo día, sino que incluían también los valores retroacumulados de los factores climáticos, esto es, la suma durante un período de días antes de la evaluación. Los resultados sugieren que la temperatura y la humedad relativa tenían una influencia directa sobre el insecto, mientras que la velocidad del viento tenía una relación inversa. Este estudio ilustra cómo el análisis de la información climática puede mejorar la capacidad predictiva sobre el establecimiento de M. velezangeli en cultivos de aguacate, un aspecto clave para direccionar el manejo integrado de la plaga.>>>
Luisa Fernanda Torres Jaimes
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José Régulo Cartagena Valenzuela
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Guillermo Antonio Correa Londoño
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Danilo Augusto Monsalve García
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Martha Eugenia Londoño Zuluaga
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en: In a seven years old citrus grove of Tahiti lime Citrus latifolia Tanaka (Rutaceae) located in El Espinal, Tolima, Colombia, which has a predominantly negative water balance throughout the year, we evaluated the effect of irrigation and fertilization on yield and fruit quality in 2009 and 2011. Trees were subjected to three levels of water based on the evapotranspiration reference (ETo): L1=100 %, L2=70 % and L3=50 %. We applied three nitrogen treatments: N1=nitrogen required by the nutritional balance, N2=twice the level of nitrogen used in N1, and N3=fertilizer application used by the common farmer. We evaluated the performance, fruit weight, polar and equatorial diameter of fruit, shell thickness, weight and percentage of juice, acidity, soluble solids and vitamin C. The experiment was conducted under a randomized complete block design in a split plot arrangement; the variance and means of the data were statistically analyzed with SAS. And optimal response is between irrigation and fruit quality interaction was obtained with irrigation L1 and fertilization N2. We obtained the highest values in the response variables when the highest amount of water was applied L1, regardless of fertilizer applications, indicating that a lower water supply not only affects the performance of the plant, but also the quality of the fruit, minimizing market opportunities.>>>
Diana Dorado Guerra
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Luis Carlos Grajales
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Liliana Ríos Rojas
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en: The aim of this study was to obtain blackberry seedlings of three ecotypes of blackberry (monterrico, sin espinas and castilla), from in vitro cultures inoculated individually and combined with Arbuscular Mycorrhiza Fungi (AMF) Glomus sp. (GEV02) and plant growth promoting rhizobacteria strains of Pseudomonas migulae (Pf014) and Bacillus amyloliquefaciens (Bs006). The growth variables were aerial and root length (cm), leaf and root fresh and dry weight (g), root volume (cm3) and leaf area (cm2). The symbiotic variables were root colonization (%) by the AMF. The results show a possible synergism between Glomus sp. (GEV02) and rhizobacteria evaluated in combination as these showed the highest values in all variables analyzed. Using the mixture of these organisms a better establishment, development and seedling vigor of default in the three ecotypes was observed, improving survival (≥80 %) in the stages of hardening and acclimatization.>>>
Urley Adrian
Corporación Colombiana de Investigación Agropecuaria
Colombia
María Margarita Ramírez Gómez
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Yimmy Alexander Zapata Narváez
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Juana Marcela Córdoba Sánchez
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en: The major citrus production of the world are located between 20-40 degrees north and south latitude. In these conditions the mandarins get the best internal and external qualities. ‘Arrayana’ is the main mandarin cultivated in Colombia tropical lowlands (around 04° N). This variety is characterized by a high concentration of the harvest in december and january because it has only one principal bloom in the year (two weeks after onset of rainy season); and an average external quality that prevents it from being highly competitive. Both conditions reduce the profitability of citrus growers in the region. In order to identify and develop mandarin genotypes who obtain outstanding qualities in tropical lowlands, was evaluated at Corpoica La Libertad Research Center (Villavicencio, Meta) the Dancy variety since 2000 (Citrus reticulata Blanco var. Dancy) for vegetative growth, fruit yield, quality and consumer acceptance through a hedonic test. This information was compared with that obtained in experimental field of Arrayana tangerine; both were grafted on ‘Cleopatra’ mandarin rootstock (Citrus reshni hort. ex Tanaka). The outstanding fruit quality of Dancy (TSS: 10,8; TSS/TA ratio: 18,1; fruit weight: 145,85 g) and high cumulative production confirms the adaptation of the variety to the conditions of the Foothills of Meta department; while good consumer acceptance, suggests its recommendation to be established as complementary to the Arrayana’s production. The evaluated clone is susceptible to Alternaria which may limit its cultivation in tropical medium lands conditions where the rainfall regime is bimodal and relative humidity can be high.>>>
Diana Mateus-Cagua
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Javier Orlando Orduz-Rodríguez
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en: In 2010, Corpoica began in the dissected eastern plains of Colombia, the installation and study of the structure and floristic composition in a permanent one-hectare plot located in the tropical bioclimatic unit called gallery forest, in the municipality of Puerto Gaitan, Meta. The plot was laid out and demarcated; then, were identified and measured all individuals with DBH greater than ten centimeters. Accordingly with floristic composition were founded 519 individuals belonging to 72 species, 56 genera and 36 families of woody plants were recorded. Families with highest species richness were Burseraceae (5), Euphorbiaceae (5) and Clusiaceae (5). The main uses of the 72 species were 32 timber, 18 wildlife feeding, 10 watersheds protective nature, five suppliers of wood, three fruits, one dye production and one ornamental. The highest tree recorded for the parcel height was 21 meters reported by individuals in the “chaparro de agua” Panopsis rubescens and “merecurillo blanco” (Licania kunthiana). The species “tuno” (Miconia sp) and “quincedias” (Tapirira guianensis), were the two species with higher importance value index (IVI) 29.5% and 23.8%, respectively. In the vertical and horizontal structure analysis was observed that the middle stratum (Em) showed a 46.9% coverage, corresponding to a basal area (6.87 m2), the top stratum (Es) 45.7% (6.69 m2) and the lower stratum (Ei) 7.41% (1.09 m2). The results suggest that these areas are diverse both in structure and floristic composition and this diversity are affected by human disturbance as there is presence of clear effect of selective logging.>>>
Albert Gutiérrez
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Fernando García
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Salvador Rojas
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Francisco Castro
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en: The main objective of this study was to evaluate the production of meat during the dry period in Brachiaria hybrid cv. Mulato II pasture with three stocking rates, irrigated and spring fertilized. The research was conducted for 140 days at the Center for Research Turipaná of the Colombian Corporation of Agricultural Research (Corpoica), located at Cereté, Córdoba (Colombia). Were grazed 48 cattle, commercial zebu with average weight of 339 ± 29 kg in an area of 12 hectares. Three treatments (3, 4, 5 animals/ha) were evaluated with two replications in a randomized block design. Production, chemical and botanical composition, in situ degradability of dry matter and the daily weight gain was determined. Economic feasibility was determined by the benefit/cost ratio. The dry matter production was 1.925.16, 1.111.18 and 884.92 kg ha-1 for treatments 3, 4, 5 animal/ha respectively, detected differences (p<0.05). The quality of the pasture showed no difference (p>0.05). For daily gain analysis found differences (p<0.05), with gains of 1.07, 0.989 and 0.940 kg animal for treatments 3, 4, 5 animal/ha. The treatment 5 animal/ha provided the best indicators economical.>>>
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