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Revista del CLAD Reforma y Democracia
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ISSN: 1315-2378
Cuatrimestral
Administración y Contabilidad
Centro Latinoamericano de Administración para el Desarrollo
Venezuela



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La versión estable de Redalyc 3.0 se libera en febrero de 2017. En la actualidad, se muestran los resultados de la marcación de artículos científicos mediante la herramienta gratuita Marcalyc, liberada en su primera versión el 1ro de septiembre de 2016 y que está pensada como un elemento central en la construcción y consolidación de un modelo de AA sustentable para Iberoamérica.
en: he decision to have a universal public health care system is always political. Many countries have decided that universal health care is the hallmark of a civilized society and that it is both necessary and affordable for governments to legislate for its citizens to that end. The question of how much any country should spend is inextricably linked to the chosen model of funding and provision, the degree of marketisation and how much risk selection and denial of care a government is prepared to tolerate in its health system. There is no country in the world that has delivered universal health care through a market and for-profit provision. This is because markets operate through selection and exclusion, transferring risks and costs back to the users of services and denying care to those that need them most. Risk selection and exclusion is built into the design of market administration; in contrast, inclusion and redistribution must be built into the systems of public administration for universal health systems. This paper takes the examples of medicines, public private partnerships and two health systems (UK and US) to show how risk selection and avoidance undermines the goal of access and universality.>>>
Allyson M. Pollock
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en: This article outlines, firstly, the European context of social inclusion policies, by means of a double perspective: comparative (diversity of welfare regimes) and dynamic (diversity of restructuring paths). On that basis, our analysis comprises two parts. On the one hand, the empirical foundations are traced: both the institutional map of the social inclusion policies in Spain, and the main profiles of poverty, exclusion and social inequality in Spanish and EU comparative perspective. On the other hand, we consider the challenges and the policy proposals to meet them. A threefold approach is developed: the policy frame, where the inclusion/ exclusion cleavage and the concept of new poverty are reinforced; the policy contents, where the alternatives are drawn in terms of human rights and personal autonomy (the new social services paradigm); and the governance dimension, with the option for new localism and action networks to implement social inclusion policies. The document offers a new set of variables emerging from the most intense years of crisis (2007-2012) and austerity (2010-2015). The growing gap between the impacts of the crisis-austerity policy regime, and the relative weakness of the social inclusion strategies across the diverse welfare models, leads us to sustain the case for a stronger social inclusion dimension, to play a central role within the new welfare cycle which is emerging in Europe.>>>
en: This document examines an associative strategy for the common prob- lems solving to some territories, adopted in Brazil since the advent of the Law N° 11.107 of April 6th, 2005, which stimulated and regulated the consolidation of public consortia. From this Law, the municipalities found more legal security to associate with their partners or with other units of the Brazilian federation (states and Union), in order to imple- ment public policies. The general aim of the study was to investigate the formation and the institutionalization of public consortia as a strategy to the territorial basis associates. In the methodological procedures, it was used the qualitative approach, once this work focused on observing the public consortia’s genesis, development and relationship networks, seek- ing to understand this phenomenon considering aspects that keep some subjectivity degree. It is about descriptive and interpretative research with the use of the strategy of the study of two cases of inter-municipal public consortium, whose characteristics provide reflection about the cooperation of the local territory scope. As conclusions of the study of these cases, some aspects are recommended to other ways of territorial cooperation and to new studies.>>>
Eliane Salete Filippim
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Fernando Luiz Abrucio
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en: The problems connected to conventional agriculture promoted by some multinationals find fruitful ground in international agreements mainly oriented to the patenting of seeds, local knowledge and traditional processes/ products. Thus, few varieties are favoured compared to the detriment of the biodiver- sity that communities own as cultivation and culture. Since the objectives of KHFA (Knowledge, Health and Food for All) project, it’s observed that an alternative model of management of agro-biodiversity should contain a combined use both of regulatory and legal tools and of socio-educational device for ensuring local communities to safeguard and value their local knowledge, skills and traditional knowledge in a framework of self/co-man- agement of these common goods at one with institutions. This article shows the results of KHFA project, with reference to nor- mative-legal tools developed in deliberative focus groups by numerous international experts and professionals get involved in the project. These deliberative focus groups have successfully produced a Concert- ed Document carrying out some specific proposals aimed at promoting agro-biodiversity along a dialogue between communities and institutions. These proposals, developed in the advocay and lobbying campaigns of the project were summerized in a motion. The Committee of the Regions of Europe submitted this motion for ratification by some local, regional and national governments also pushing for its implementation. At the end of the project, an expert group has assessed the project using the technique of scale of priorities.>>>
Salvatore Patera
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en: The study analyzes the effect of criminal justice reform in confidence in justice and police in Latin America, since 1995 to 2013. This research question is relevant given the legitimate problems inherited by mili- tary governments in the region. In order to answer this question, first, a brief framework about legal system in Latin America is presented. Then, criminal justice reforms are exposed, emphasizing in similarities and difference among the countries in this region. According to these characteristics, a conceptual cluster is proposed, which is include to test the influence of criminal justice reform in confidence in justice and police. After that, a conceptual framework about justice legitimate and procedural justice is presented, which allows to establish the major hypothesis of this study: criminal justice reform leads to higher rates of confidence in justice and police. Using data from Latinobarometer survey (1995-2013), in 18 countries from Latin America, results show that low and medium reach of the reforms are associated with higher rates of confidence, controlling the effect of some possible confounders. Finally, the article discusses the results and emphasizes the relevance of the moderation in the introduction of reforms in justice issues.>>>
en: Despite of many institutional changes, Latin American States still are known by the low technical capacity of their bureaucracies. This lack of coherence between human resources and public policy needs makes talent management in the public sector an issue of outmost importance for the countries of the region. This work will focus on one aspect untreated by recent studies of public administration in Latin America: the training systems of civil servants. At first, the characteristics of national bureaucracies in the region is shown, followed by the exposition and analysis of training syst ems for public officials, detailing the two different models used for the generation and capture of talent in Latin American public administrations. For this purpose, 18 countries of the region are analyzed. Finally, overall conclusions of the analysis and some points of interest for capacity building and talent management in Latin American bureaucracies are presented.>>>
Esther del Campo García
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José Hernández Bonivento
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en: From the analysis of welfare policy change, this paper aims to examine the axes of change and continuity of social policies in Chile, in a context of political stability and economic growth, but with changing political sign of government when assumed a right-wing government after two center-left governments, both with strong emphasis on social reforms. The study seeks to contribute to the reflection and study of the influence of the political orientation of government on social protection policies, and contribute to the analysis of Latin American social protection systems. From analysis of the regulatory frameworks of the contents of the main reforms and social programs, the level, direction, extent and dynamics of change that occurred in the right government after two reformist center-left governments. We conclude that for the Chilean case there is not retrenchment. There is not a paradigmatic change, but it is an incremental change with policy orientation changes on social policies with a re-commodification process through privatization and conditionality of social rights, in an approach that what matters opportunities are created from the economic growth and by the market. The right government emphasizes the importance of targeting policies, and increases the assistencial offer, going against the left government universalist option that was increasing the rights to social protection. The dynamics of change is gradual and incremental and degree of transformation is the continuity of the model of social policies, but with a strong role of private providers and a reduction of social expenditures. The center-left and right governments showed significant progress in reducing poverty, although the challenge of inequality remained as a pending task.>>>
María Pía Martin Munchmeyer
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en: This article presents the current VAT system in Portugal as a particular case of the wider reality of the member States of the European Union. The document exposes, as its main objective, the statistical testing of the existence of differences in the taxable gross revenue for VAT purposes at the end of the first decade of the XXI century, among the Portuguese municipalities at the Interior, Coast and Islands. The data used corresponds to the taxable gross revenue for VAT purposes in the 308 municipalities of Portugal. The detected differences in taxable gross revenue levels for VAT purposes between the three geographical areas analyzed are significant, reinforcing the results obtained in other studies. The research and detection of similar results in South American nations is proposed.>>>
Pedro Miguel Alves Ribeiro Correia
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João Ricardo Catarino
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Red de Revistas Científicas de América Latina y el Caribe, España y Portugal
Universidad Autónoma del Estado de México
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