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Educação e Pesquisa
Revista Activa *
ISSN: 1517-9702 ISSN electrónico: 1678-4634
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Educación
Universidade de São Paulo
Brasil

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La versión estable de Redalyc 3.0 se libera en febrero de 2017. En la actualidad, se muestran los resultados de la marcación de artículos científicos mediante la herramienta gratuita Marcalyc, liberada en su primera versión el 1ro de septiembre de 2016 y que está pensada como un elemento central en la construcción y consolidación de un modelo de AA sustentable para Iberoamérica.
Marília Pinto de Carvalho
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en: This is an essay based on an article published in Educação e Pesquisa , by Danilo Streck and Telmo Adams, titled “Pesquisa em educação: os movimentos sociais e a reconstrução epistemológica num contexto de colonialidade” [T.N.: Research in Education: Social Movements and Epistemological Reconstruction in a Context of Coloniality.] (2012). According to these authors, in order to be consistent, this epistemology has to deconstruct the coloniality that has marked us over centuries. In the present essay, I resume a few of the arguments of Streck and Adams, and step onto this ground of epistemological de-coloniality – very slowly. I argue that there is a paradoxical mixture in the proposals of participatory research, popular education, and decolonization movements: the mixture of the copy which we already are, the anthropophagy we did to what was imposed on us. The idea of copy and repetition is presented as though in the experience of an artificer: the action of making and remaking produces the artwork and, therefore, learning. The attempt here is to think of singular ways of seeking/producing/creating knowledge from the perspective of Latin American education.>>>
en: The goal of this paper is to analyze the relation between anthropology and education, and the relation of both with the experience of life, in a context of debates in which epistemological concerns have gradually been substituted by a reflection on the ontological dimension of existence. Starting with a discussion on the asymmetric historical relation between anthropology and education, in what concerns the analysis of sociocultural dimensions of learning, we propose the inversion of the terms of the expression anthropology of education, and then discuss the paradoxes that characterize the relation between the professional education of the anthropologist, identified as an epistemological exercise, and the ontological dimension of the ethnographic experience. From this discussion, the question of the body of the ethnographer emerges as something absent in mainstream ethnographic production, which is identified as an index of the presence of one of the structuring dichotomies of Western epistemology: the separation of mind and body. The works of authors associated to the so-called ontological turn in social sciences are brought to the discussion, and from the analysis of some of their main contributions, new points of contact between education and anthropology, on more symmetric grounds, emerge. Among these, it is of special interest the one that focuses on happiness and the plenitude of becomings, which, albeit unprecedented themes in anthropology, have been part of the educational debates of the last four decades.>>>
Renzo
Universidade Federal de São Paulo
Brasil
Ana Laura Gamboggi
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en: This article aims to discuss the method used in a qualitative study intended to identify and explain the senses and meanings of teaching. It is based on the theoretical and methodological assumptions of historical social psychology and the methodological proposal of Aguiar and Ozella (2006), who suggest the construction and analysis of “nuclei of meanings”. The categories of analysis provided by such framework include one that is fundamental for research: meaning. The question which drives this study and is or should be frequently asked by a number of researchers is: how may the choice of method and procedures contribute to analysis? Thus, the key subject of and the major discussion this article generates is the contribution of well-known procedures such as recurrent individual interviews and of procedures which are not so usual, such as awareness raising resources, in this kind of analysis that seeks to apprehend the meanings of teaching. The research has evidenced that a new way of understanding and dealing with these procedures fosters researchers’ greater mastery of and involvement in the investigation process and may, above all, enhance the constructive-interpretative potential of the analysis. Finally, it indicates the need to employ new tools for the analysis of meanings.>>>
Vanessa Cristina da Silva
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Claudia Leme Ferreira Davis
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en: Since the 1990s, Latin America has been the scene of numerous educational reforms resulting from recommendations of international organizations, dictated by the neoliberal economic model. These reforms materialized basically in the establishment of assessment systems, the emphasis on the continuing education of teachers and the dissemination of information and communication technologies. In this article, we focus on the issue of continuing teacher education, aiming at identifying, characterizing, and comparing current policies in Brazil and Mexico. We also analyze strategies of their implementation, with special attention to the forms of appropriation of the proposals in both countries. In this comparative exercise, we start from the conception that, although under the same logic, the formative projects express different political and cultural contexts, as well as tensions, disputes and interests in their implementation. In this sense, it is true that they meet demands made by placing the teacher as the center of their concerns. However, in general, this does not imply that teachers are considered subjects of political action in their education and teaching activities; on the contrary, they start from the principle that the teacher lacks elements to educate, which should be supplied in continuing education courses. Such courses, by focusing on certification (Brazil), or obtaining scores for career advancement (Mexico), may result in further overwork. Nevertheless, teachers often invent forms of appropriation of these courses unforeseen by the public policies, building new meanings for their teaching.>>>
Jaqueline Kalmus
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Marilene Proença Rebello de Souza
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en: This article aims to discuss the challenges adult educators in the field of “Mathematics for Life” face, as well as to analyse the adaptation and creation of professional practices that emerge from the implementation of the Recognition, Validation, and Certification of Competencies (RVCC) process used in the Portuguese adult education system. Methodologically, the study was undertaken using a qualitative, multi-situated approach that focussed on the dynamics of the New Opportunities Centres, particularly on educators in the field of “Mathematics for Life”, most of whom were formerly mathematics teachers in the mainstream education system. Using the official Portuguese documents as a reference framework, the results of the content analysis of the interviews conducted with the adult educators revealed dilemmas and challenges. These were analysed from the perspective of new teaching practices that educators in the “Mathematics for Life” field need to develop and implement in this particular model of adult education, the diversity amongst the adults who use the RVCC system, and the need to decode and adapt official documents in this specific area. Our research shows that the recognition, validation, and certification of competencies (RVCC) process tends to encourage adult educators in the “Mathematics for Life” area to take a dialogical stance that legitimates the daily mathematical knowledge of adults in a way that resembles an ethnomathematics perspective. The results indicate both new attitudes and professional practices related to the search for new teaching methodologies, and methodologies for the validation of learning, expanding previous perspectives and developing the process of identity, as well as the understanding of the meaning of becoming an adult educator in a more holistic way, contextualised within the reality of adult education.>>>
Maria Cecilia Fantinato
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Darlinda Moreira
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en: The present study sought to describe how questions related to the teaching of mathematics are approached and conducted by virtual tutors in a distance-learning program for primary teachers. Data were collected in an undergraduate program in education in a Brazilian public university which considers that virtual tutors should help not only with the use of the virtual environment and its tools, but also with the contents and the education of their students, i.e., future teachers. Choosing this object of study allowed using a case study, which seeks knowledge based on a specific case, represented in this study by the way the work of virtual tutors is organized. To conduct our analysis, we took into account aspects of textual discourse analysis in a qualitative approach. We found that a fairly individualized service can be provided for the needs of each student by: a) pointing the positive aspects of each activity with a view to systematizing learnings; b) expanding and complementing the ideas presented; c) problematizing and questioning; and d) approaching aspects related to mathematics contents and the effective participation of children in activities. The description and analysis of tutor interventions allowed us to verify that, in this distance-learning program for teachers, many of the virtual tutors’ practices might be viewed as those of a teacher.>>>
Luciane de Fatima Bertini
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Cármen Lúcia Brancaglion Passos
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en: This article presents reflections developed during PhD research that sought answers to the question: what do the discourses of senior students in undergraduate Physics and Education courses of Universidade Estadual de Maringá , in Paraná state, on distance education and specifically on each course reveal? Twenty-six undergraduate students gave interviews, which were audio- recorded, transcribed and assessed according to the French discourse analysis. This enabled unveiling the meanings that emanated from the discourses of the research participants, without the pretense of generalizations. Our objective was to understand discourses of the students on their personal experience in distance education undergraduate courses, as well as their structural, organizational and educational aspects. The most relevant findings have been: strong influence of images constructed throughout schooling in face-to-face education; easy access to higher education via distance education and its adaptability to the living conditions of students; student preference for printed books and video classes to support learning; resistance, technical failures, and limited use of information and communication technology as mediators of teaching and learning, as well as weaknesses in the communication between tutors and students.>>>
Simone de Souza
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Valdeni S. Franco
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Maria Luisa F. Costa
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en: This article focuses on the perception of two groups of pupils with different academic performances regarding the factors that most influence their learning. We intend to know what these two groups value the most in such learning and whether there are differences in such perception. By means of an open questionnaire applied to 39 pupils of 16 schools from the Fénix network (“More School Success” program), stratified in two groups (pupils with good academic results and pupils with poor academic results), it has been possible to know their representations of the factors that make them learn the most. To read this production we used the good schools’ categorization by MacBeath (1999), and concluded that the dimensions (i) support to their learning, (ii) relations between pupils and between pupils and teachers, (iii) organization and communication, and (iv) value attributed to education are the most referred, which is aligned with the generality of the knowledge available. It can also be concluded that the dimensions with a more organizational nature, non-directly observable by pupils, tend not to be referred, especially by pupils with lower academic results. Last, we note that some implicit risks of a project that makes differentiation an educational surplus value, but that may contribute to the emergence of growing inequality between pupils.>>>
José Matias Alves
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Ilídia Cabral
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en: This article presents an analysis of the experience of children aged four to five years in an early childhood education institution. The category of experience was taken from the theories of François Dubet (1996), Walter Benjamin (1984, 2011a, 2011b), and early childhood social studies (SARMENTO 2002, 2008; CORSARO 2002, 2009, 2011, among others). The case study was conducted in a public early childhood education institution and involved 18 children and two teachers, used audiovisual recordings and notes records in a field diary to capture the children’s actions. The children in the institution articulated different logics of action in the relationships with each other and with adults, which were based on the integrative, strategic and subjective dimensions, which are essential to the concept of social experience. The article discusses the need to consider children in the context of relationships regulated by adults when one uses the categories of social action for the study of children’s experiences in early childhood education institutions. The analyses present an interpretation of such experiences, which are expressed through both the verbal and body languages of boys and girls. When experiencing the institution, children articulate such experience to their other life experiences, imprinting on them the character of continuity.>>>
Sandro Vinicius Sales dos Santos
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Isabel de Oliveira e Silva
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en: This article analyzes the role and concept of lato sensu graduate courses, looking at them in context, and according to regulatory frameworks. It highlights the academic role assigned to educational institutions and managers, reflecting carefully on political, administrative and educational roles of the coordinators of graduate courses, with special attention to lato sensu courses. Its methodology has used the recommendations, normative resolutions and decrees issued by the Ministry of Education (MEC) and the National Council of Education, since the 1960s. It also examines literature on the critical analysis of course normative standards, and reflects on the reduced funding of higher education in the 1990s, which has led to a significant increase in private institutions, and especially to the increase in lato sensu courses, including corporate courses offered by public institutions. This and the lack of regulation of course offers bring risks to the quality of those courses. Course coordinators and managers are responsible for guaranteeing course quality by encouraging the interlocution between theory and practice, the articulation between content and the world of work, and mainly the formative dimension of students, who should be educated to exercise ethics and citizenship in any social dimension they might be involved with in the future.>>>
Marília Fonseca
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Dirce Mendes da Fonseca
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en: This study about the philosophical Portuguese journeys to Brazil aims at expanding the theme of and the approach to the History of Science in Brazil, promoting the debate about how the work on scientific practices, techniques and representations allows the development of teaching methodologies that encompass Brazilian themes in their context. From the gathered sources, obtained from a bibliographical database of travelers, we were able to draw relationship webs linking politicians, drawers, engineers, cartographers, engravers, naturalists and the local population. In order to disclose the data, this gathered material challenged us to think about proposals of biographical writings of travelers within the virtual environment. Such framework allows our work to ensure two scales of importance, i.e., to emphasize the particular role of travelers, demonstrating singularities, and to guarantee the analysis of social contexts via interpersonal relations from a space-time perspective. Within such biographies and elaborating on the hybrid character of the genre, we defined that the formulation of micro-narratives would grant the biographical writing constructed around the travelers. The writing of short texts will basically follow the modal biography, pointing to the network of social relations of the subject, and also by the biographemes, characterized by the production of a momentary biographical impression. Through a non-linear historical process, the biographical writings and the creation of hyperlinks allow the complex nature of the relationships of that period to be reflected in the micro-narratives formulated.>>>
Ermelinda Moutinho Pataca
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Cristiane Borges de Oliveira
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en: School bullying can involve children in different ways, making them play different roles, among them, victims, bullies and bully-victims. The aim of this study was to describe how bullying occurs in high social vulnerability schools of Florianópolis metropolitan area and the roles played by students in this phenomenon. Overall, 409 children and adolescents from the 3rd to 5th grades and of two public elementary schools aged 8-16 years (X = 11.14) participated in this study. As a tool, the Olweus Questionnaire adapted to the Brazilian population was used. For data analysis, descriptive statistics and inferential statistics were applied by the Mann Whitney and Kruskal Wallis tests. As for results, 29.8% of boys and 40.5% of girls reported being victims; 32.3% of boys and 24.6% of girls reported being bullies. Victims were the most willing to help a colleague who is suffering from bullying (X = 1.54; p> 0.001), even if they do not know the victims (X = 1.57; p> 0.004). Bullies are differentiated from the group that does not participate (X = 1.73) and the group of victims (X = 2.34), being those who felt less alone (x = 1.47; p> 0.001). It was concluded that the information obtained in this study is indispensable in the search for alternatives to reduce school bullying. The strengthening of relations between school and students and a better preparation of teachers and school staff are extremely necessary to try to minimize the effects of risk factors to which these children are exposed and consequently violence at school.>>>
Marcela Almeida Zequinão
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Pâmella de Medeiros
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Beatriz Pereira
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Fernando Luiz Cardoso
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en: his paper presents a part of the extensive study of the project Cyberbullying – A Diagnosis of the Situation in Portugal, which applied a questionnaire to 3,525 teenagers in the 6th, 8th and 11th schooling levels. In order to characterize cyberbullying, we have sought to contribute to the identification and interpretation of emotions experienced by the youngsters involved as victims or offenders in cyberbullying situations. The data reveal that sadness, desire for revenge, and fear are the most frequent emotions of the victims, while satisfaction, indifference and relief are those that the offenders experience the most. Data also reveal significant differences between the emotions experienced by victims and those that offenders attributed to them, which can be an indicator of the lack of empathy of the latter and thus requires the development of an emotional education of youngsters. Some significant differences have been found concerning schooling level, sex, school, and municipality, namely: a higher incidence of emotions such as sadness, fear, insecurity, and the desire for revenge among male victims; more feelings of insecurity, relief, confusion, and disorientation among young female offenders; emotions associated with impotence and lack of support experienced by youngsters in the role of victims, more in some schools than in others. These data lead us to reflect on how to take action to prevent cyberbullying.>>>
Ana Paula Caetano
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Maria José D. Martins
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Maria Teresa Pessoa
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en: This article results from a historiographical study about the establishment of a monocultural school in Araucania region, in south Chile, between 1883 and 1910. It aims to analyse the school as the main power device which allowed legitimizing the establishment and implementation of the Chilean national curriculum in Mapuche territory. We argue that the comprehension of the current intercultural problems between the Mapuche knowledge and the knowledge typical of Western society can be explained by how the school was established and projected in Araucania in the late 20th century. By means of a theoretical documentary analysis, we seek to understand the dynamic the school acquired in a disciplinary diagram of knowledge power articulated from the capital of Chile, in order to integrate Mapuche people in the nation-state project which had been conceived and dreamt of by the oligarchical ruling groups in Chile. Thus, in this text we present empirical samples of file material which were confronted with secondary sources, which reveal the presence of new actors, such as school inspectors, school visitors, and teachers, who assumed the mission of implementing the republican curriculum in the indigenous territory. It was possible to find that, during the establishment of the monocultural school in the late 19th century and the beginning of the celebration of the first centenary of the Chilean independence, there was no curriculum contextualization.>>>
Juan Mansilla Sepúlveda
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Daniel Llancavil Llancavil
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Manuel Mieres Chacaltana
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Elizabeth Montanares Vargas
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en: This article brings the results of a study whose purpose was to construct with teachers working in a Mapuche cultural and educational context what they demand from educational institutions according to the needs for their performance. Teachers’ current requirements are correlated, in a historical perspective, with the demands of a group of teachers from this indigenous people witnessed in the 1930s and 1940s. The study has been developed with a mixed social research methodology of historical character to focus on the Mapuche teachers’ demands, and with a communicative methodology to collect current teachers’ demands. For the latter, a mixed research model with a sequential integrated typology was implemented, in which different data collecting techniques were used (communicative questionnaires, interviews, and discussion groups). The results of both corpora of requirements converge on the need for teachers with training in Mapuche culture and language, so that they can deal with the cultural and linguistic characteristics of Mapuche students. In other words, they demand teachers be qualified to develop culturally relevant education.>>>
en: In this interview, philosopher Marilena de Souza Chaui reconstitutes her trajectory as a philosophy student and professor, in both secondary and higher education, analyzes her participation in the resistance to the civilian-military dictatorship within the university, and highlights the importance of her activities as a researcher at Centro de Estudos de Cultura Contemporânea (Cedec – Contemporary Culture Study Center) and as Sao Paulo city culture secretary during the government of Luiza Erundina. From this, she proposes a reflection on the transformations of the Brazilian university in recent decades, on the idea of cultural citizenship, and on some crucial points for teaching, especially for philosophy teaching. Contrary to the concept of teaching based on the transmission of knowledge, CHAUI defends an education which not only covers the thinking of philosophers, scientists and artists, but also examines new experiences. She argues that it is crucial that teachers assist students with making the transition from the experience lived to the experience understood.>>>
Homero Silveira Santiago
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Paulo Henrique Fernandes Silveira
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Red de Revistas Científicas de América Latina y el Caribe, España y Portugal
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