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Ibero-Amerikanisches Institut Preußischer Kulturbesitz

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Teresa Valiente Catter
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Cristina Villari
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en: The phonological inventory of Quechua dialects contains at least three palatal consonants: /č, ɲ, λ/ (orthographically represented by <ch>, <ñ> and <ll>, respectively), to which it should be added one more, /š/ (spelled as <sh>), among the Northern-Central varieties of the languages only. These segments, aside from their occurrence restriction within the syllabic structure of the language, play a highly productive distinctive role. However, beyond this basic property, they also play an expressive function no less important, that of conveying littleness, thinness, delicacy, and what is more general semantically speaking, affectivity. In the present paper, attention will be paid to this important phenomenon highly used among Quechua dialects, not only at the lexical-semantic and grammatical level, and in the formation of nicknames, but also in other registers such as child speech and as stylistic resource in the traditional oral literature.>>>
Rodolfo Cerrón-Palomino
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en: In recent decades the city of Huaraz has experienced great socio-cultural changes. The presence of mining companies and the tourism have turned it into a commercial city. Many farmers have moved into the city with the aim of looking for work and provide a bet- ter education for their children. These internal migrations and the interaction with external actors that have entered into the region have given birth to very complex socio-linguistic realities. A continuum of scenarios among the few monolingual Quechua speakers and the frequent monolingual Spanish speakers, passing through different degrees of lingualism (Aikhenvald 2007: 36), characterizes the city of Huaraz and its province. The present article provides a look at these different socio-linguistic scenarios taking into account the criteria of geographical location, language prestige of Quechua and Spanish as well as pedagogical and gender issues and generational changes. The data of this article are mainly based on my own observations and recordings between 2011 and 2014.>>>
Cristina Villari
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en: This article investigates the language use of bilingual students (Quechua-Spanish) in the urban area of Cochabamba. Their perceptions of language use at the societal as well as the individual level are analysed using empirical-qualitative methodologies. The urban area of Cochabamba constitutes a special ‘sociolinguistic reality’, which is mainly characterized by the language contact between Spanish and Quechua, and, though to a lesser extent, Aimara as well as other indigenous languages spoken there. This complex situation of language contact frequently results to be conflictive. Due to the long history of asymmetric power relations between the speakers of Spanish and those of Quechua, we find highly diglossic relations between these languages. At the same time, Quechua in Cochabamba has a remarkable vitality and there is evidence of an extended and relatively stable bilingualism at the societal and the individual level. This sociolinguistic situation exerts an influence on the current state and the future position of the Quechuan language in the urban area of Cochabamba. It is there that Quechua is suffering an accelerated language shift and loss at the societal and individual level. This phenomenon is closely related to a widespread lack of the intergenerational language transmission that plays a key role in language maintenance. Taking into account the current socio-political transformations in Bolivia and their possible influence on the region’s sociolinguistic situation, this article focuses on the individual bilingual speaker; it analyses his or her language use, which is understood as a cultural practice that gives life to a language and ensures its survival.>>>
Jurek Hentschel
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en: In the first part of this contribution we present the Quechua Spanish Bilingualism Project (bqc) in Huamanga, capital of the department of Ayacucho, cradle of the QuechuaChanca bilingualism. The project was started in 1968 by the San Marcos University of Lima in collaboration with the Institute of Peruvian Studies (Instituto de Estudios Peruanos, iep), under the coordination of Wolfgang Wölck from New York State University at Buffalo with the objective to analyze the sociolinguistic conditions for the implementation of bilingual education. The second part shows the sub-sample of the research on bilingualism in San Juan Bautista which was developed on the basis of two additional cross-section interviews in 1978 and 1996 into a longitudinal study that allowed us to relate socio-political changes to changes in the appreciation and perception of the languages in contact. In the final cross-section research in 2014 we again analyzed the language legislation in favor of the indigenous languages as well as the recent economic development and strategies to reduce the poverty and migration from rural to urban areas. In addition we focused our attention on young students who came recently from the countryside to the Huamanga University (Universidad Nacional de San Cristobal de Huamanga, unsch). This new academic scenario showed us that linguistic traumas from past violence are ceding to new dynamics in urban bilingualism but also raising news conflicts. We include Hatun Ñan, the project of affirmative action, initiated by the Catholic University in Lima together with the unsch and supported financially by the Ford Foundation which has the objective to integrate efficiently those rural students and to promote intercultural toler- ance in the university as well as the revalorization of the indigenous languages (Quechua y Ashaninka).>>>
Utta von Gleich
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es: Este trabajo presenta y explora topónimos en las lenguas yunga del sur, quingnam y muchik, en el valle de Nepeña (Ancash, Perú). Los nombres identificados incluyen posibles voces compuestas quechua-yunga y, posiblemente, muchik-quingnam. Se expone su distribución especial y se discuten las implicancias cronológicas. Con base en una comparación con la distribución espacio-temporal de datos arqueológicos, la ubicación de lugares sagrados waka y rutas de interacción interregional, así como con dinámicas políticas, se propone el multilingüismo duradero, vinculado a templos oraculares establecidos, como modelo alterno a teorías de sustitución de lenguas.>>>
Alexander Herrera Wassilowsky
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en: The Andean-Amazonian concepts of Yakumama transform as they move through space and time. Whenever the narrators talk about her, different images of this figure are produced. Yakumama myths obviously originate in the jungle, where she appears as an anthropomorphic and/or divine anaconda, incorporating fears and other human feelings, and as a companion or moral authority, a being who demands respect and symbolizes nature. In the Andes Yakumama appears in very different forms, her image is dispersed in pieces of semantic features that blend with others already existing in this region and even with some European ones. Thus Yakumama can be recognized in the water goddess, in the Andean siren as a seductress of men, in the male snake as a robber of women, in Amaru, the sacred serpent, and in the flying lizard. She also appears as a guardian spirit, as Q’ucha, the devouring lagoon, as the serpentine river, as Illapa, the god of lightning, and she is represented in the stellar constellation Yakumama. The main objective of this essay is a semantic-cultural analysis of the Andean concepts of the figure of Yakumama. The interrelations of these concepts suggest they form a semantic system of Wittgensteinian ‘family resemblances’. An analysis of the myths will provide important insights into Andean-Amazonian cultures, especially of the Quechua culture, which is the source of the original narrations on which this study is based.>>>
en: The Quechua word tinkuy (from the root tinku- of the verb ‘to meet’ and the noun ‘meeting’) is used by the Ministry of Education of Peru in order to promote festive meetings among school children of different cultures. During these meetings children can talk to each other about their experiences. The public institution aims to contribute to the children’s cognitive development in their intercultural competence in a culturally heteroge- nous society and, consequently, to overcome social and cultural exclusion. What does tinkuy mean for Quechua speakers? This paper offers an analysis of the root tinku- in different dictionaries of the 16th, 17th and 19th centuries. ‘Meeting’ is a general translation. But tinkuy is used in many different contexts. This point underlines the importance of using dictionaries as an ethnographic source in the studies of language and culture of the Andean region. The specific uses of tinku- will help us to understand terms and ideas about how Quechua people use tinkuy nowadays in their ritual, public and everyday life.>>>
Teresa Valiente Catter
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en: The aim of the current research work is the analysis of two fragments of stage plays from the 17th and 18th centuries, written in nauatl. The main issue of both is the Passion of Christ. Both manuscripts had been kept in the public prosecutor’s office archive of Santa María Atlihuetzia, Tlaxcala, México. The subject of the Passion of Christ was very common in Tlaxcala. At present we can allude, at least, to three preserved stage plays: The two fragments mentioned above, and another fragment of the 16th century that came from the adjacent village of San Simón Tlatlauhquitepec. Through the use of plays like these, the friars tried to consolidate the Christian Faith among the Tlaxcala naua peoples.>>>
Raul Macuil Martínez
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