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Psicoperspectivas
Revista Activa *
ISSN: 0717-7798 ISSN electrónico: 0718-6924
Semestral
Psicología
Pontificia Universidad Católica de Valparaíso
Chile

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Paula
Pontificia Universidad Católica de Valparaíso
Chile
Verónica López
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en: This article presents the premises behind the shift towards the natural sciences taken by Psychology at the beginning of the XX century and the different processes that helped to identify its scientific nature with attributes such as objectivity, an emphasis on empiricism and quantification. The research emphasizes the historic and cultural nature of science itself, and the need to have new epistemological a methodological representations as a condition to make progress on new theoretical tracks. Following this goal, we propose the need of a Qualitative Epistemology on which to unfold a constructive-interpretative methodology as a necessary condition to make progress in field research about the topic of subjectivity from a cultural-historic perspective. The theory of subjectivity that this article supports represents, in fact, an epistemological proposal, since its concepts do not exist a priori of professional practice nor research, but they have to be constructed along both of them, so it is not possible to talk about “data collection”.>>>
Fernando González Rey
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Albertina Mitjáns Martínez
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es: Este artículo trata la personificación y la emoción en contextos educacionales tempranos, aún cuando en la actualidad hayan sido desechados por ser demasiado riesgosos para ser reconocidos y que solamente se les admita como conocimiento emocional o resilencia, responsabilizando e individualizando ocurrencias que son abstracciones de lo que ocurre en la sala de clases y en las relaciones interpersonales. Me focalizo analíticamente en dos recuentos de eventos efímeros, ofreciendo lecturas consecutivas que cruzan marcos teóricos, incluyendo las perspectivas materialista y psicoanalítica – abarcando los contextos escolar, universitario y tutorial. El propósito de este artículo es explorar las relaciones entre afecto (emoción, sentimiento) y efecto (desenlace, resultado), entre la enseñanza y el aprendizaje, entre el momento del incidente y la tarea primaria. La conceptualización de lo que se entiende que queda entre es considerada vital en dos sentidos: primero, en el sentido de darle vida, es decir, incluyendo nociones de actividad de agencia (sin que esto necesariamente implique la existencia de un agente singular o intencionalidad), así como, en segundo lugar, el sentido coloquial de ser importante. Al relacionar estas dos vitalidades, aparecen en escena asuntos de relaciones interpersonales en la co-producción y constitución de ambientes educacionales, aún cuando el descansar en un solo modelo o marco de referencia para su interpretación se demuestra que es menos relevante que las adiciones, y de hecho fricciones, que esos modelos podrían iluminar o provocar.>>>
en: This article aims at advancing in the formalization of a general theory of subjecive theories. It consists of a proposal that contains the ontological, epistemological and methodological assumptions that are essential in order to sustain the theory, based on which the proposal reconsiders the key concepts being used and formulates basic propositions to state it. Apart from providing theoretical support in central aspects for the study of subjective theories, the goal of our work is to be useful when applying the theory in a diversity of psychological research fields, as well as when intervening to produce change in subjective theories and in the way they orient behavior.>>>
en: The biographical approach emerged during a decade between the ‘20s and ‘30s in the school of Chicago as a way to introduce complexity in the studies about monopolized subjectivities, which up to then had been conducted using quantitative studies derived from the natural sciences. In Chile, during the eighties, this perspective grew rapidly in order to “lend voice to those without voice”: women, peasants and workers, among others. The article reviews the use of this approach in Chile, from a different social and political context, to contribute to the discussion of its pertinence and limitations for the emerging Social Sciences. The first part reviews the concepts, the schools of thought and the dimensions (ethical, ontological, epistemological and methodological); the second part examines what is being studied and how, and the treatment of the dimensions of time and change used in these studies. Finally, we contribute with an analysis of its limitations and benefits, in order to enhance and strengthen an approach that purports to include complexity in studies about subjectivity in Chile.>>>
Camila Moyano Dávila
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Francisca Ortiz Ruiz
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en: This article inspects the place that personal implication occupies and the reflexive practices of the researcher have in reflexive ethnography. Based on a total immersion field study that took place in an area in the southern end of Santiago, we analyze the importance of biographical, affective and social attributes of the researcher when conducting the research. In particular, using an ethnographical account, we show how a process of self-objectivation and self-analysis helped the researcher to confront the integration difficulties and to find her place in the midst of the community under study. We finally conclude that reflexive exercise does help to effectively include in the research personal attributes of the researcher, as well as biographical elements and the conditions in which the study is being conducted. Within this framework – the sensitivity of the researcher becomes part of her core knowledge toolkit.>>>
Maria Soledad Ruiz
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en: The starting point in this study is the mandatory use of children restraints (SRI) in Brazil, as per Resolution 277/08 of the National Traffic Council, which regulates transportation of children under the age of 10 and the use of SRI when transporting them using passenger vehicles. Our aim was to understand what is the effect of this lagislation on its target public by interviewing twelve parents of children under seven and a half years old who transport them using private vehicles. Our conclusions underline the ambivalence of its target public with respect to the use of the devices. Two ways to categorize the SRI stood out: some parents perceive the device as something that does promote safety for children and others use it only to avoid getting a traffic violation ticket by the traffic authority.>>>pt: Este artigo tem como ponto de partida a obrigatoriedade do uso dos assentos de segurança infantil (ASI) no Brasil, materializado na Resolução 277/08 do Conselho Nacional de Trânsito, que dispõe sobre o transporte de crianças menores de dez anos e a utilização de ASI para o transporte destas em carros de passeio. Tivemos por objetivo compreender quais os efeitos desta obrigatoriedade em seu público-alvo, entrevistando doze pais que tinham filhos com até sete anos e meio e que as transportavam em carros particulares. Concluímos destacando a ambivalência no que diz respeito ao uso dos dispositivos por seu público, em que dois modos de categorizar os ASI se sobressaíram: aqueles que percebiam o artefato como um objeto que promove segurança da criança e aqueles que o utilizam apenas para evitar serem punidas com multas pelos órgãos reguladores do trânsito.>>>
Pedro Figueiredo
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Mary Jane Spink
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en: A diversity of daily life processes are responsible for the build-up of subjectivity, some of them take place under critical circumstances, as is the case with gender violence instances that intersect with migration processes to foreign countries. This work attempts to look into the transformation of subjectivites that emerge from those critical instances, and to show how those subjectivities may be “seized” from the utterances (five of them) of migrant women about their experiences. Our results indicate that they are subjective accounts which are vulnerable to start with and which are subject to hegemonic and constrictive expository positions. Upon liminal experiences such as pain, discomfort, or else receiving assistance by others, and future expectations, those accounts turn into emerging subjectivities that we validate as having significant transformative power.>>>
Pilar Albertín Carbó
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en: Perspective and its goal is to investigate how adolescents organize their self reports and construct their relationships using consumer logic which happen during the process of making it a subjective act. It is a qualitative study which used six eleventh grade students as subjects. We used discourse analysis to analyze the interviews. The narratives were configured as: 1) “entry into the real world” (options, stability and work); 2) identification with mediatic characters and references to their daily lifestyles, interwoven with forms idealized by the participants; 3) vision of consumption (meaning, purpose and modulating factor). In the study, consumption is introduced as a key social marker and as an enabler of existential possibilities, providing meaning to their current actions and future plans. Consumption was regarded by participants as promoting inclusion and having compulsion features. Otherness was portrayed as a means to modulate and provide assistance in consumption practice processes.>>>
Raquel Andrade de Souza Ew
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Adolfo
Pontifícia Universidade Católica do Rio Grande do Sul
Brasil
Kátia Bones Rocha
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en: Socio-economic segregation at school is a phenomenon that has been getting increasing attention in our country. The specialized literature indicates that there are three types of factors that may have an influence on it: residential segregation, socio-cultural factors and institutional factors. We present the results of an on-going research on elementary education. We analyze segregation at school focusing on territorial communities known as Geographically Enclosed Units, in which schools tend to be within the same enclosure. We chose a mixed qualitative and quantitative approach. We present three case studies from a comparative perspective: in all cases there is one municipal school and one subsidized private school. The analysis indicates that socio-economic segregation observed may be explained basically in terms of selection and co-financing practices.>>>
Claudia Córdoba
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Javiera Azócar
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es: Los cambios de la universidad conducen a frustraciones cuando el profesor no es capaz de atender a los requerimientos de informaciones actualizadas, en particular cuando este adquirió la consciencia de que educar nos es sólo informar, pero formar. Así, la articulación entre contenidos y de estos con valores es indispensable. ¿Por qué entonces predomina el currículo con prioridad sobre los aspectos informativos de la educación, por lo tanto, menos dialógico? En esta perspectiva, la investigación focaliza la interacción entre experiencias sociales construida por estudiantes y profesores, con el objetivo de comprender como tornar cada vez más concreto el currículo dialógico. Un estudio de casos múltiples reveló el hábito de culpar uno a otro por el fracaso académico, así como la negación de las capacidades críticas de los sujetos y la tendencia a cultivar relaciones autoritarias.>>>en: Changes that take place in the University lead to frustration whenever the professor is unable to take care of requests of up-to-date information, in particular given that he/she is well aware that educating is not only about conveying information but to educate. Thus, the articulation across contents and values is essential. ¿So, why is it that the curriculum takes priority over informative aspects of education, rendering it less dialogic? From this perspective, this research focuses on the interaction between social experiences as constructed by students and educators, setting the goal of understanding how is it that we can make the dialogic curriculum more concrete. A multiple case study revealed habits such as blaming one another for academic failure, denying the counterpart´s capability to criticize and a tendency to develop authoritative relationships.>>>
Ivar César Oliveira de Vasconcelos
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Candido Alberto da Costa Gomes
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en: Inter-cultural education is a task and challenge for XXI century formal education. This article first deconstructs the concept of culture in order to show the intentiona-transformative character of the educational act and, on another key, reveals the notion of difference in the distinctions we make within our own peer group as opposed to those involving others. The goal of the article is to analyze the conclusions advanced by a set of field research endeavours about inter-cultural education on formal Latin American education. We used contents analysis in our methodological approach, covering thirty field research articles in Latin America, as published in scientific magazines between 2000 and 2013, using the EBSCO database. Results were organized along two dimensions: (a) cultural identity: the organization of internal differences versus others and (b) ethical-political: the social project of the educational endeavour. Finally, we deliver a systematic approach that contributes to understand and propose the underlying logic about the role of the difference and the educational endeavour in Latin American Inter-cultural Education. The studies converge in delimiting cultural differences that may serve as a beacon to inter-cultural educational endeavours.>>>
Marco Antonio Villalta
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en: The growing concern about how to deal with the problem of delinquency has fostered the emergence of a diversity of approaches that have joined the discussion, with delinquent behaviour abandonment becoming one of the most relevant nowadays. The goal of this study was to evaluate the current relationship between the type of perceived social support provided by institutional support services and its influence on the processes that persistent criminals who are inmates of a Prison Camp in the south of Chile undergo to eventually quit criminal behaviour. We used focalized individual interviews to elicit the perceptions of interviewees, using a qualitative descriptive design with multiple cases. Our results show that interviewees declare that they have a positive valuation of institutions, deeming them a potentially beneficial space available to them through a facilitator. Nevertheless, institutions do not seem to influence their decision to quit crime.Inmates blame themselves for their criminal behaviour, thus reducing the credit that institutions have in theirchoice of criminal paths. We discuss possible implications of our findings on intervention processes for this population.>>>
Yonatan Bustamante
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Elizabeth Herrera
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Ricardo Pérez-Luco
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en: The transactional stress paradigm conceptualizes perceived discrimination as a stress inductor that may have negative consequences for mental health and which calls for the development of coping strategies. This study examines discrimination as perceived by the Peruvian immigrant population that has settled in Santiago de Chile, both as a group and as individuals, and its relationship with confrontation strategies and mental health. To carry out this research we used a snowball sampling approach. Subjects sere three hundred and fifty-five Peruvian immigrants ages eighteen to fitfty-eight years old living in Santiago, who answered a battery of tests focused on covering the variables of interest. Results show that the perception of discrimination is greater at the group level than at the personal level. People who perceive that they are being discriminated tend to use more cognitive avoidance strategies, which do not bear relationship with symptomatology. We can thus conclude that the use of these strategies may have a shielding role against the effects of perceived personal discrimination.>>>
Sonia Lahoz i Ubach
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Maria Forns i Santacana
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en: Socio-economic segregation at school is a phenomenon that has been getting increasing attention in our country. The specialized literature indicates that there are three types of factors that may have an influence on it: residential segregation, socio-cultural factors and institutional factors. We present the results of an on-going research on elementary education. We analyze segregation at school focusing on territorial communities known as Geographically Enclosed Units, in which schools tend to be within the same enclosure. We chose a mixed qualitative and quantitative approach. We present three case studies from a comparative perspective: in all cases there is one municipal school and one subsidized private school. The analysis indicates that socio-economic segregation observed may be explained basically in terms of selection and co-financing practices.>>>
Claudia Córdoba
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Javiera Azócar
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